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#### Keywords

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#### Institute

The task of periodic timetabling is to determine trip arrival and departure times in a public transport system such that travel and transfer times are minimized. This paper investigates periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We show that different routing models can have a huge influence on the quality of the entire system: Whatever metric is applied, the performance ratios of timetables w.r.t. different routing models can be arbitrarily large. Computations on a real-world instance for the city of Wuppertal substantiate the theoretical findings. These results indicate the existence of untapped optimization potentials that can be used to improve the efficiency of public transport systems by integrating passenger routing.

Umsteigen ohne Warten
(2017)

Wir stellen einen mathematischen Optimierungsansatz zur Berechnung von periodischen Taktfahrplänen vor, bei dem die Umsteigezeiten unter
Berücksichtigung des Passagierverhaltens minimiert werden. Wir untersuchen damit den Einfluss wichtiger Systemparameter und Verhaltensmuster auf die Beförderungsqualität.

Cycle inequalities play an important role in the polyhedral study of the periodic timetabling problem. We give the first pseudo-polynomial time separation algorithm for cycle inequalities, and we give a rigorous proof for the pseudo-polynomial time separability of the change-cycle inequalities. The efficiency of these cutting planes is demonstrated on real-world instances of the periodic timetabling problem.

We propose a novel extended formulation for the line planning problem in public transport. It is based on a new concept of frequency configurations that account for all possible options to provide a required transportation capacity on an infrastructure edge. We show that this model yields a strong LP relaxation. It implies, in particular, general classes of facet defining inequalities for the standard model.

Periodic timetabling is an important strategic planning problem in public transport. The task is to determine periodic arrival and departure times of the lines in a given network, minimizing the travel time of the passengers. We extend the modulo network simplex method, a well-established heuristic for the periodic timetabling problem, by integrating a passenger (re)routing step into the pivot operations. Computations on real-world networks show that we can indeed find timetables with much shorter total travel time, when we take the passengers' travel paths into consideration.

The task of timetabling is to schedule the trips in a public transport system by determining periodic arrival and departure times at every station. The goal is to provide a service that is both attractive for passengers and can be operated economically. To date, timetable optimization is generally done with respect to fixed passenger routes, i.e., it is assumed that passengers do not respond to changes in the timetable. This is unrealistic and ignores potentially valuable degrees of freedom. We investigate in this paper periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We propose several models that differ in the allowed passenger paths and the objectives. We compare these models theoretically and report on computations on real-world instances for the city of Wuppertal.

Umsteigen ohne Warten
(2017)

Cycle inequalities play an important role in the polyhedral study of the periodic
timetabling problem. We give the first pseudo-polynomial time separation algo-
rithm for cycle inequalities, and we give a rigorous proof for the pseudo-polynomial
time separability of the change-cycle inequalities. Moreover, we provide several
NP-completeness results, indicating that pseudo-polynomial time is best possible.
The efficiency of these cutting planes is demonstrated on real-world instances of the
periodic timetabling problem.