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We present a heuristic solution approach for the rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM). The task of this problem is to assign a sequence of trips to each of the vehicles and to schedule their maintenance such that all trips can be operated. Here, the health states of the vehicles are considered to be random variables distributed by a family of probability distribution functions, and the maintenance services should be scheduled based on the failure probability of the vehicles. The proposed algorithm first generates a solution by solving an integer linear program and then heuristically improves this solution by applying a local search procedure. For this purpose, the trips assigned to the vehicles are split up and recombined, whereby additional deadhead trips can be inserted between the partial assignments. Subsequently, the maintenance is scheduled by solving a shortest path problem in a state-expanded version of a space-time graph restricted to the trips of the individual vehicles. The solution approach is tested and evaluated on a set of test instances based on real-world timetables.

In this paper, we introduce the Maximum Diversity Assortment Selection Problem (MADASS), which is a generalization of the 2-dimensional Cutting Stock Problem (2CSP). Given a set of rectangles and a rectangular container, the goal of 2CSP is to determine a subset of rectangles that can be placed in the container without overlapping, i.e., a feasible assortment, such that a maximum area is covered. In MADASS, we need to determine a set of feasible assortments, each of them covering a certain minimum threshold of the container, such that the diversity among them is maximized. Thereby, diversity is defined as minimum or average normalized Hamming-Distance of all assortment pairs. The MADASS Problem was used in the 11th AIMMS-MOPTA Competition in 2019. The methods we describe in this article and the computational results won the contest.
In the following, we give a definition of the problem, introduce a mathematical model and solution approaches, determine upper bounds on the diversity, and conclude with computational experiments conducted on test instances derived from the 2CSP literature.

We present a heuristic solution approach for the rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM). The task of this problem is to assign a sequence of trips to each of the vehicles
and to schedule their maintenance such that all trips can be operated. Here, the health states of the vehicles are considered to be random variables distributed by a family of probability distribution functions, and the maintenance services should be scheduled based on the failure probability of the vehicles. The proposed algorithm first generates a solution by solving an integer linear program and then heuristically improves this solution by applying a local search procedure. For this purpose, the trips assigned to the vehicles are split up and recombined, whereby additional deadhead trips can be inserted between the partial assignments. Subse-
quently, the maintenance is scheduled by solving a shortest path problem in a state-expanded version of a space-time graph restricted to the trips of the individual vehicles. The solution approach is tested and evaluated on a set of test instances based on real-world timetables.

Construction of a Test Library for the Rolling Stock Rotation Problem with Predictive Maintenance
(2023)

We describe the development of a test library for the rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM). Our approach involves the utilization of genuine timetables from a private German railroad company. The generated instances incorporate probability distribution functions for modeling the health states of the vehicles and the considered trips possess varying degradation functions. RSRP-PdM involves assigning trips to a fleet of vehicles and scheduling their maintenance based on their individual health states. The goal is to minimize the total costs consisting of operational costs and the expected costs associated with vehicle failures. The failure probability is dependent on the health states of the vehicles, which are assumed to be random variables distributed by a family of probability distributions. Each distribution is represented by the parameters characterizing it and during the operation of the trips, these parameters get altered. Our approach incorporates non-linear degradation functions to describe the inference of the parameters but also linear ones could be applied. The resulting instances consist of the timetables of the individual lines that use the same vehicle type. Overall, we employ these assumptions and utilize open-source data to create a library of instances with varying difficulty. Our approach is vital for evaluating and comparing algorithms designed to solve the RSRP-PdM.

We study the solution of the rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PM) by an iterative refinement approach that is based on a state-expanded event-graph. In this graph, the states are parameters of a failure distribution, and paths correspond to vehicle rotations with associated health state approximations. An optimal set of paths including maintenance can be computed by solving an integer linear program. Afterwards, the graph is refined and the procedure repeated. An associated linear program gives rise to a lower bound that can be used to determine the solution quality. Computational results for two instances derived from real world timetables of a German railway company are presented. The results show the effectiveness of the approach and the quality of the solutions.

In this article, we introduce the Maximum Diversity Assortment Selection Problem (MDASP), which is a generalization of the two-dimensional Knapsack Problem (2D-KP). Given a set of rectangles and a rectangular container, the goal of 2D-KP is to determine a subset of rectangles that can be placed in the container without overlapping, i.e., a feasible assortment, such that a maximum area is covered. MDASP is to determine a set of feasible assortments, each of them covering a certain minimum threshold of the container, such that the diversity among them is maximized. Thereby, diversity is defined as the minimum or average normalized Hamming distance of all assortment pairs. MDASP was the topic of the 11th AIMMS-MOPTA Competition in 2019. The methods described in this article and the resulting computational results won the contest. In the following, we give a definition of the problem, introduce a mathematical model and solution approaches, determine upper bounds on the diversity, and conclude with computational experiments conducted on test instances derived from the 2D-KP literature.

We study the solution of the rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM) by an iterative refinement approach that is based on a state-expanded event-graph. In this graph, the states are parameters of a failure distribution, and paths correspond to vehicle rotations with associated health state approximations. An optimal set of paths including maintenance can be computed by solving an integer linear program. Afterwards, the graph is refined and the procedure repeated. An associated linear program gives rise to a lower bound that can be used to determine the solution quality. Computational results for six instances derived from real-world timetables of a German railway company are presented. The results show the effectiveness of the approach and the quality of the solutions.

An Iterative Refinement Approach for the Rolling Stock Rotation Problem with Predictive Maintenance
(2024)

The rolling stock rotation problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM) involves the assignment of trips to a fleet of vehicles with integrated maintenance scheduling based on the predicted failure probability of the vehicles. These probabilities are determined by the health states of the vehicles, which are considered to be random variables distributed by a parameterized family of probability distribution functions. During the operation of the trips, the corresponding parameters get updated. In this article, we present a dual solution approach for RSRP-PdM and generalize a linear programming based lower bound for this problem to families of probability distribution functions with more than one parameter. For this purpose, we define a rounding function that allows for a consistent underestimation of the parameters and model the problem by a state-expanded event-graph in which the possible states are restricted to a discrete set. This induces a flow problem that is solved by an integer linear program. We show that the iterative refinement of the underlying discretization leads to solutions that converge from below to an optimal solution of the original instance. Thus, the linear relaxation of the considered integer linear program results in a lower bound for RSRP-PdM. Finally, we report on the results of computational experiments conducted on a library of test instances.

A Bayesian Rolling Horizon Approach for Rolling Stock Rotation Planning with Predictive Maintenance
(2024)

We consider the rolling stock rotation planning problem with predictive maintenance (RSRP-PdM), where a timetable given by a set of trips must be operated by a fleet of vehicles. Here, the health states of the vehicles are assumed to be random variables, and their maintenance schedule should be planned based on their predicted failure probabilities. Utilizing the Bayesian update step of the Kalman filter, we develop a rolling horizon approach for RSRP-PdM, in which the predicted health state distributions are updated as new data become available. This approach reduces the uncertainty of the health states and thus improves the decision-making basis for maintenance planning. To solve the instances, we employ a local neighborhood search, which is a modification of a heuristic for RSRP-PdM, and demonstrate its effectiveness. Using this solution algorithm, the presented approach is compared with the results of common maintenance strategies on test instances derived from real-world timetables. The obtained results show the benefits of the rolling horizon approach.