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- Quantum Theory with Discrete Spectra and Countable Systems of Differential Equations - A Numerical Treatment of RamanSpectroscopy. (1992)
- Models for occupation dynamics in discrete quantum systems lead to large or even infinite systems of ordinary differential equations. Some new mathematical techniques, developed for the simulation of chemical processes, make a numerical solution of countable systems of ordinary differential equations possible. Both, a basic physical concept for the construction of such systems and the structure of the numerical tools for solving them are presented. These conceptual aspects are illustrated by a simulation of an occupation process from spectroscopy. In this example the structures of rotation spectra observed in infrared spectroscopy are explained and some possibilities for an extension of the model are shown.

- A quasiresonant smoothing algorithm for the fast analysis of selective vibrational excitation. (1993)
- One key problem in modern chemistry is the simulation of the dynamical reaction of a molecule subjected to external radiation. This is described by the Schrödinger equation, which, after eigenfunction expansion, can be written in form of a system of ordinary differential equations, whose solutions show a highly oscillatory behaviour. The oscillations with high frequencies and small amplitudes confine the stepsizes of any numerical integrator -- an effect, which, in turn, blows up the simulation time. Larger stepsizes can be expected by averaging these fast oscillations, thus smoothing the trajectories. This idea leads to the construction of a quasiresonant smoothing algorithm (QRS). In QRS, a natural and computationally available splitting parameter $\delta$ controls the smoothing properties. The performance of QRS is demonstrated in two applications treating the selective excitation of vibrational states by picosecond laser pulses. In comparison with standard methods a speedup factor of 60--100 is observed. A closer look to purely physically motivated quasiresonant approximations such as WFQRA shows some additional advantages of the above smoothing idea. Among these the possibility of an adaptive formulation of QRS via the parameter $\delta$ is of particular importance.

- Numerical Simulation of Relaxation Oscillations of Waveguide-Lasers. (1993)
- An analysis of relaxation oscillations in local Er-doped optically pumped lasers is reported. It is based on a time dependent rate equation model for a quasi-two-level-system with wavelength dependent emission- and absorption cross-sections. For the first time a numerically reliable simulation of the characteristic laser behaviour was possible: the onset and decay of the oscillations, the time-dependent repetition period and the steady state signal output power. The characteristic waveguide parameters, as the erbium-concentration profile, the polarization dependent pump- and signal mode intensity profiles, the scattering losses, the cavity length and the front and rear reflectivities were all taken into account. The basic formulas are general and can also be used for Er-doped fiber lasers. Mathematically the problem can be characterized as a large boundary value problem, which can approximately be replaced by a stiff initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. The used algorithmic replacement procedure is motivated and discussed in detail. Here, pump- and signal evolution versus time are presented for an planar Er-diffused $\rm Ti$:$\rm LiNbO_{3}$ waveguide laser. The numerically obtained results show a nearly quantitative agreement with experimental investigations. Simultanously they supply knowledge about non-measureable (space-dependent population dynamic of the Er-atoms) and till today not measured data (dynamical response of the laser by a sharp peak in the external pump).

- Smoothed Molecular Dynamics for Thermally Embedded Systems (1995)
- This paper makes use of statistical mechanics in order to construct effective potentials for Molecular Dynamics for systems with nonstationary thermal embedding. The usual approach requires the computation of a statistical ensemble of trajectories. In the context of the new model the evaluation of only one single trajectory is sufficient for the determination of all interesting quantities, which leads to an enormous reduction of computational effort. This single trajectory is the solution to a corrected Hamiltonian system with a new potential $\tilde{V}$. It turns out that $\tilde{V}$ can be defined as spatial average of the original potential $V$. Therefore, the Hamiltonian dynamics defined by $\tilde{V}$ is smoother than that effected by $V$, i.e. a numerical integration of its evolution in time allows larger stepsizes. Thus, the presented approach introduces a Molecular Dynamics with smoothed trajectories originating from spatial averaging. This is deeply connected to time--averaging in Molecular Dynamics. These two types of {\em smoothed Molecular Dynamics} share advantages (gain in efficiency, reduction of error amplification, increased stability) and problems (necessity of closing relations and adaptive control schemes) which will be explained in detail.

- Dynamics of Erbium-doped Waveguide Lasers: Modelling, Reliable Simulation, and Comparison with Experiments (1995)
- A theoretical investigation of the dynamic properties of integrated optical Er--doped waveguide lasers is presented. It includes the construction of a physical model and of numerical techniques which allow reliable simulations of the dynamical behaviour of the laser signal depending on essential parameters of the laser device and on its external, time--dependent pump radiation. Therefore, a physical theory is developed which describes the propagation of light and its interaction with the active substrate in the laser cavity. This is realized in two steps. First, a {\em fundamental model} based on Maxwell's equations and on rate equations for the transitions in the active medium is constructed. Since this turns out to prohibit reliable simulations, it is, in a second step, reformulated via averaging in time and space which suppresses the fluctuations on the fastest time scales but represents them correctly. For this {\em reduced model} reliable and efficient simulation techniques using adaptive control schemes are designed and implemented. We apply the linear--implicit Euler discretization with extrapolation in time and a multilevel quadrature scheme in space. Finally, the model is justified in comparison with experimental observations in four cases of technological relevance.

- Quantum-Classical Molecular Dynamics as an Approximation to Full Quantum Dynamics (1995)
- This paper presents a mathematical derivation of a model for quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) as a {\em partial} classical limit of the full Schrödinger equation. This limit is achieved in two steps: separation of the full wavefunction and short wave asymptotics for its ``classical'' part. Both steps can be rigorously justified under certain smallness assumptions. Moreover, the results imply that neither the time-dependent self-consistent field method nor mixed quantum-semi-classical models lead to better approximations than QCMD since they depend on the separation step, too. On the other hand, the theory leads to a characterization of the critical situations in which the models are in danger of largely deviating from the solution of the full Schrödinger equation. These critical situations are exemplified in an illustrative numerical simulation: the collinear collision of an Argon atom with a harmonic quantum oscillator.

- A Mathematical Approach to Smoothed Molecular Dynamics: Correcting Potentials for Freezing Bond Angles (1995)
- The interaction potential of molecular systems which are typically used in molecular dynamics can be split into two parts of essentially different stiffness. The strong part of the potential forces the solution of the equations of motion to oscillate on a very small time scale. There is a strong need for eliminating the smallest time scales because they are a severe restriction for numerical long-term simulations of macromolecules. This leads to the idea of just freezing the high frequency degrees of freedom (bond stretching and bond angles). However, the naive way of doing this via holonomic constraints is bound to produce incorrect results. The paper presents a mathematically rigorous discussion of the limit situation in which the stiffness of the strong part of the potential is increased to infinity. It is demonstrated that the average of the limit solution indeed obeys a constrained Hamiltonian system but with a {\em corrected soft potential}. An explicit formula for the additive potential correction is given and its significant contribution is demonstrated in an illustrative example. It appears that this correcting potential is definitely not identical with the Fixman-potential as was repeatedly assumed in the literature.

- Homogenization of Highly Oscillatory Hamiltonian Systems (1995)
- The paper studies Hamiltonian systems with a strong potential forcing the solutions to oscillate on a very small time scale. In particular, we are interested in the limit situation where the size $\epsilon$ of this small time scale tends to zero but the velocity components remain oscillating with an amplitude variation of order ${\rm O}(1)$. The process of establishing an effective initial value problem for the limit positions will be called {\em homogenization} of the Hamiltonian system. This problem occurs in mechanics as the problem of realization of holonomic constraints, in plasma physics as the problem of guiding center motion, in the simulation of biomolecules as the so called smoothing problem. We suggest the systematic use of the notion of {\em weak convergence} in order to approach this problem. This methodology helps to establish unified and short proofs of the known results which throw light on the inherent structure of the problem. Moreover, we give a careful and critical review of the literature.

- A Mathematical Investigation of the Car-Parrinello Method (1996)
- The Car-Parrinello method for ab-initio molecular dynamics avoids the explicit minimization of energy functionals given by functional density theory in the context of the quantum adiabatic approximation (time-dependent Born-Oppenheimer approximation). Instead, it introduces a fictitious classical dynamics for the electronic orbitals. For many realistic systems this concept allowed first-principle computer simulations for the first time. In this paper we study the {\em quantitative} influence of the involved parameter $\mu$, the fictitious electronic mass of the method. In particular, we prove by use of a carefully chosen two-time-scale asymptotics that the deviation of the Car-Parrinello method from the adiabatic model is of order ${\rm O}(\mu^{1/2})$ --- provided one starts in the ground state of the electronic system and the electronic excitation spectrum satisfies a certain non-degeneracy condition. Analyzing a two-level model problem we prove that our result cannot be improved in general. Finally, we show how to use the gained quantitative insight for an automatic control of the unphysical ``fake'' kinetic energy of the method.

- Adaptive Accuracy Control for Microcanonical Car-Parrinello Simulations (1996)
- The Car-Parrinello (CP) approach to ab initio molecular dynamics serves as an approximation to time-dependent Born-Oppenheimer (BO) calculations. It replaces the explicit minimization of the energy functional by a fictitious Newtonian dynamics and therefore introduces an artificial mass parameter $\mu$ which controls the electronic motion. A recent theoretical investigation shows that the CP-error, i.e., the deviation of the CP--solution from the BO-solution {\em decreases} like $\mu^{1/2}$ asymptotically. Since the computational effort {\em increases} like $\mu^{-1/2}$, the choice of $\mu$ has to find a compromise between efficiency and accuracy. The asymptotical result is used in this paper to construct an easily implemented algorithm which automatically controls $\mu$: the parameter $\mu$ is repeatedly adapted during the simulation by choosing $\mu$ as large as possible while pushing an error measure below a user-given tolerance. The performance and reliability of the algorithm is illustrated by a typical example.