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- Linear response theory and optimal control for a molecular system under nonequilibrium conditions (2013)
- In this paper, we propose a straightforward generalization of linear response theory to systems in nonequilibrium that are subject to nonequilibrium driving. We briefly revisit the standard linear response result for equilibrium systems, where we consider Langevin dynamics as a special case, and then give an alternative derivation using a change-of-measure argument that does not rely on any stationarity or reversibility assumption. This procedure moreover easily enables us to calculate the second order correction to the linear response formula (which may or may not be useful in practice). Furthermore, we outline how the novel nonequilibirum linear response formula can be used to compute optimal controls of molecular systems for cases in which one wants to steer the system to maximize a certain target expectation value. We illustrate our approach with simple numerical examples.

- Grand-canonical-like molecular-dynamics simulations by using an adaptive-resolution technique (2013)

- Characterization of Rare Events in Molecular Dynamics (2013)
- A good deal of molecular dynamics simulations aims at predicting and quantifying rare events, such as the folding of a protein or a phase transition. Simulating rare events is often prohibitive, especially if the equations of motion are high-dimensional, as is the case in molecular dynamics. Various algorithms have been proposed for efficiently computing mean first passage times, transition rates or reaction pathways. This article surveys and discusses recent developments in the field of rare event simulation and outlines a new approach that combines ideas from optimal control and statistical mechanics. The optimal control approach described in detail resembles the use of Jarzynski's equality for free energy calculations, but with an optimized protocol that speeds up the sampling, while (theoretically) giving variance-free estimators of the rare events statistics. We illustrate the new approach with two numerical examples and discuss its relation to existing methods.

- Markov State Models for Rare Events in Molecular Dynamics (2013)
- Rare but important transition events between long lived states are a key feature of many molecular systems. In many cases the computation of rare event statistics by direct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is infeasible even on the most powerful computers because of the immensely long simulation timescales needed. Recently a technique for spatial discretization of the molecular state space designed to help overcome such problems, so-called Markov State Models (MSMs), has attracted a lot of attention. We review the theoretical background and algorithmic realization of MSMs and illustrate their use by some numerical examples. Furthermore we introduce a novel approach to using MSMs for the eﬃcient solution of optimal control problems that appear in applications where one desires to optimize molecular properties by means of external controls.

- Linear response theory and optimal control for a molecular system under nonequilibrium conditions (2013)

- Importance sampling in path space for diffusion processes with slow-fast variables (2017)
- Importance sampling is a widely used technique to reduce the variance of a Monte Carlo estimator by an appropriate change of measure. In this work, we study importance sampling in the framework of diffusion process and consider the change of measure which is realized by adding a control force to the original dynamics. For certain exponential type expectation, the corresponding control force of the optimal change of measure leads to a zero-variance estimator and is related to the solution of a Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellmann equation. We focus on certain diffusions with both slow and fast variables, and the main result is that we obtain an upper bound of the relative error for the importance sampling estimators with control obtained from the limiting dynamics. We demonstrate our approximation strategy with an illustrative numerical example.