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The C-implementation of KASKADE, an adaptive solver for linear elliptic differential equations in 2D, is object of a set of numerical experiments to analyze the use of resources (time and memory) with respect to numerical accuracy. We study the dependency of the reliability, robustness, and efficiency of the program from the parameters controlling the algorithm.

Dynamical process simulation of complex real-life problems often requires the use of modern algorithms, which automatically adapt both the time and space discretization in order to get error-controlled approximations of the solution. In this paper, a combination of linearly implicit time integrators of Rosenbrock type and adaptive multilevel finite elements based on a posteriori error estimates is presented. This approach has proven to work quite satisfactorily for a wide range of challenging practical problems. We show the performance of our adaptive method for two applications that arise in the study of flame balls and brine transport in porous media.

The KASKADE toolbox defines an interface to a set of C subroutines which can be used to implement adaptive multilevel Finite Element Methods solving systems of elliptic equations in two and three space dimensions. The manual contains the description of the data structures and subroutines. The main modules of the toolbox are a runtime environment, triangulation and node handling, assembling, direct and iterative solvers for the linear systems, error estimators, refinement strategies, and graphic utilities. Additionally, we included appendices on the basic command language interface, on file formats, and on the definition of the partial differential equations which can be solved. The software is available on the ZIB ftp--server {\tt elib} in the directory {\tt pub/kaskade}. TR 93--5 supersedes TR 89--4 and TR 89--05.

KASKADE 3.0 User's Guide
(1995)

KASKADE 3.x was developed for the solution of partial differential equations in one, two, or three space dimensions. Its object-oriented implementation concept is based on the programming language C++$\,$.~Adaptive finite element techniques are employed to provide solution procedures of optimal computational complexity. This implies a posteriori error estimation, local mesh refinement and multilevel preconditioning. The program was designed both as a platform for further developments of adaptive multilevel codes and as a tool to tackle practical problems. Up to now we have implemented scalar problem types like stationary or transient heat conduction. The latter one is solved with the Rothe method, enabling adaptivity both in space and time. Some nonlinear phenomena like obstacle problems or two-phase Stefan problems are incorporated as well. Extensions to vector-valued functions and complex arithmetic are provided. This report helps to work with KASKADE Especially we \begin{itemize} \setlength{\parskip}{0ex} \item [{\bf --}] study a set of examples, \item [{\bf --}] explain how to define a user's problem and \item [{\bf --}] introduce a graphical user interface. \end{itemize} We are extending this guide continuously. The latest version is available by network.

KASKADE 3.0 was developed for the solution of partial differential equations in one, two, or three space dimensions. Its object-oriented implementation concept is based on the programming language C++$\,$.~Adaptive finite element techniques are employed to provide solution procedures of optimal computational complexity. This implies a posteriori error estimation, local mesh refinement and multilevel preconditioning. The program was designed both as a platform for further developments of adaptive multilevel codes and as a tool to tackle practical problems. Up to now we have implemented scalar problem types like stationary or transient heat conduction. The latter one is solved with the Rothe method, enabling adaptivity both in space and time. Some nonlinear phenomena like obstacle problems or two-phase Stefan problems are incorporated as well. Extensions to vector-valued functions and complex arithmetic are provided. %Such free boundary problems ... We have implemented several iterative solvers for both symmetric and unsymmetric systems together with multiplicative and additive multilevel preconditioners. Systems arising from the nonlinear problems can be solved with lately developed monotone multigrid methods. %An object-oriented concept was chosen for KASKADE~3.0, based on the programming %language C++$\,$. This should provide the desired extensibilty and clearly %reflect the structure of the code. %A direct sparse matrix solver (Harwell MA28) is included.

We consider the approximate solution of selfadjoint elliptic problems in three space dimensions by piecewise linear finite elements with respect to a highly non-uniform tetrahedral mesh which is generated adaptively. The arising linear systems are solved iteratively by the conjugate gradient method provided with a multilevel preconditioner. Here, the accuracy of the iterative solution is coupled with the discretization error. as the performance of hierarchical bases preconditioners deteriorate in three space dimensions, the BPX preconditioner is used, taking special care of an efficient implementation. Reliable a-posteriori estimates for the discretization error are derived from a local comparison with the approximation resulting from piecewise quadratic elements. To illustrate the theoretical results, we consider a familiar model problem involving reentrant corners and a real-life problem arising from hyperthermia, a recent clinical method for cancer therapy.

We consider the discretization of obstacle problems for second order elliptic differential operators in three space dimensions by piecewise linear finite elements. Linearizing the discrete problems by suitable active set strategies, the resulting linear sub--problems are solved iteratively by preconditioned cg--iterations. We propose a variant of the BPX preconditioner and prove an $O(j)$ estimate for the resulting condition number. To allow for local mesh refinement we derive semi--local and local a posteriori error estimates. The theoretical results are illustrated by numerical computations.

{\def\enorm {\mathop{\mbox{\boldmath{$|\!|$}}}\nolimits} Let $u \in H$ be the exact solution of a given self--adjoint elliptic boundary value problem, which is approximated by some $\tilde{u} \in {\cal S}$, $\cal S$ being a suitable finite element space. Efficient and reliable a posteriori estimates of the error $\enorm u - \tilde{u}\enorm $, measuring the (local) quality of $\tilde{u}$, play a crucial role in termination criteria and in the adaptive refinement of the underlying mesh. A well--known class of error estimates can be derived systematically by localizing the discretized defect problem using domain decomposition techniques. In the present paper, we provide a guideline for the theoretical analysis of such error estimates. We further clarify the relation to other concepts. Our analysis leads to new error estimates, which are specially suited to three space dimensions. The theoretical results are illustrated by numerical computations.}

An error controlled finite elemente method (FEM) for solving stationary Schrödinger equations in three space dimensions is proposed. The method is based on an adaptive space discretization into tetrahedra and local polynomial basis functions of order $p=1$--$5$ defined on these tetrahedra. According to a local error estimator the triangulation is automatically adapted to the solution. Numerical results for standard problems appearing in vibrational motion and molecular structure calculations are presented and discussed. Relative precisions better than 1e-8 are obtained. For equilateral H$_3^{++}$ the adaptive FEM turns out to be superior to global basis set expansions in the literature. Our precise FEM results exclude in a definite manner the stability or metastability of equilateral H$_3^{++}$ in its groundstate.

The transient heating in an unsymmetrical coated hot--strip sensor was simulated with a self--adaptive finite element method. The first tests of this model show that it can determine with a small error the thermal conductivity of liquids, from the transient temperature rise in the hot--strip, deposited in a substrate and coated by an alumina spray.