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Large-eddy simulations (LES) with the new ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic atmosphere model (ICON) covering Germany are evaluated for four days in spring 2013 using observational data from various sources. Reference simulations with the established Consortium for Small-scale Modelling (COSMO) numerical weather prediction model and further standard LES codes are performed and used as a reference. This comprehensive evaluation approach covers multiple parameters and scales, focusing on boundary-layer variables, clouds and precipitation. The evaluation points to the need to work on parametrizations influencing the surface energy balance, and possibly on ice cloud microphysics. The central purpose for the development and application of ICON in the LES configuration is the use of simulation results to improve the understanding of moist processes, as well as their parametrization in climate models. The evaluation thus aims at building confidence in the model's ability to simulate small- to mesoscale variability in turbulence, clouds and precipitation. The results are encouraging: the high-resolution model matches the observed variability much better at small- to mesoscales than the coarser resolved reference model. In its highest grid resolution, the simulated turbulence profiles are realistic and column water vapour matches the observed temporal variability at short time-scales. Despite being somewhat too large and too frequent, small cumulus clouds are well represented in comparison with satellite data, as is the shape of the cloud size spectrum. Variability of cloud water matches the satellite observations much better in ICON than in the reference model. In this sense, it is concluded that the model is fit for the purpose of using its output for parametrization development, despite the potential to improve further some important aspects of processes that are also parametrized in the high-resolution model.

This paper addresses the problem of designing a minimum cost network whose capacities are sufficiently large to allow a feasible routing of a given set of multicast commodities. A multicast commodity consists of a set of two or mo re terminals that need to be connected by a so called broadcast tree, which consumes on all of its edges a capacity as large as the demand value associated with that commodity. We model the network design problem with multicast commodities as the problem of packing capacitated Steiner trees in a graph. In the first part of the paper we present three mixed-integer programming formulations for this problem. The first natural formulation uses only one integer capacity variable for each edge and and one binary tree variable for each commodity-edge pair. Applying well-known techniques from the Steiner tree problem, we then develop a stronger directed and a multicommodity flow based mixed-integer programming formulation. In the second part of the paper we study the associated polyhedra and derive valid and even facet defining inequalities for the natural formulation. Finally, we describe separation algorithms for these inequalities and present computational results that demonstrate the strength of our extended formulations.

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a simple graph and $s$ and $t$ be two distinct vertices of $G$. A path in $G$ is called $\ell$-bounded for some $\ell\in\mathbb{N}$, if it does not contain more than $\ell$ edges. We study the computational complexity of approximating the optimum value for two optimization problems of finding sets of vertex-disjoint $\ell$-bounded $s,t$-paths in $G$. First, we show that computing the maximum number of vertex-disjoint $\ell$-bounded $s,t$-paths is $\mathcal{AP\kern-1pt X}$--complete for any fixed length bound $\ell\geq 5$. Second, for a given number $k\in\mathbb{N}$, $1\leq k \leq |V|-1$, and non-negative weights on the edges of $G$, the problem of finding $k$ vertex-disjoint $\ell$-bounded $s,t$-paths with minimal total weight is proven to be $\mathcal{NPO}$--complete for any length bound $\ell\geq 5$. Furthermore, we show that, even if $G$ is complete, it is $\mathcal{NP}$--complete to approximate the optimal solution value of this problem within a factor of $2^{\langle\phi\rangle^\epsilon}$ for any constant $0<\epsilon<1$, where $\langle\phi\rangle$ denotes the encoding size of the given problem instance $\phi$. We prove that these results are tight in the sense that for lengths $\ell\leq 4$ both problems are polynomially solvable, assuming that the weights satisfy a generalized triangle inequality in the weighted problem. All results presented also hold for directed and non-simple graphs. For the analogous problems where the path length restriction is replaced by the condition that all paths must have length equal to $\ell$ or where vertex-disjointness is replaced by edge-disjointness we obtain similar results.

We investigate the problem of designing survivable broadband virtual private networks that employ the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol to route the packages. The capacities available for the links of the network are a minimal capacity plus multiples of a unit capacity. Given the directed communication demands between all pairs of nodes, we wish to select the capacities in a such way, that even in case of a single node or a single link failure a specified percentage of each demand can be satisfied and the costs for these capacities are minimal. We present a mixed--integer linear programming formulation of this problem and several heuristics for its solution. Furthermore, we report on computational results with real-world data.

In this paper we investigate the performance of several out-of-the box solvers for mixed-integer quadratically constrained programmes (MIQCPs) on an open pit mine production scheduling problem with mixing constraints. We compare the solvers BARON, Couenne, SBB, and SCIP to a problem-specific algorithm on two different MIQCP formulations. The computational results presented show that general-purpose solvers with no particular knowledge of problem structure are able to nearly match the performance of a hand-crafted algorithm.

Most data networks nowadays use shortest path protocols to route the traffic. Given administrative routing lengths for the links of the network, all data packets are sent along shortest paths with respect to these lengths from their source to their destination. In this paper, we present an integer programming algorithm for the minimum congestion unsplittable shortest path routing problem, which arises in the operational planning of such networks. Given a capacitated directed graph and a set of communication demands, the goal is to find routing lengths that define a unique shortest path for each demand and minimize the maximum congestion over all links in the resulting routing. We illustrate the general decomposition approach our algorithm is based on, present the integer and linear programming models used to solve the master and the client problem, and discuss the most important implementational aspects. Finally, we report computational results for various benchmark problems, which demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

Nowadays most data networks use shortest path protocols such as OSPF or IS-IS to route traffic. Given administrative routing lengths for the links of a network, all data packets are sent along shortest paths with respect to these lengths from their source to their destination. One of the most fundamental problems in planning shortest path networks is to decide whether a given set of routing paths forms a valid routing and, if this is not the case, to find a small subset of the given paths that cannot be shortest paths simultaneously for any routing lengths. In this paper we show that it is NP-hard to approximate the size of the smallest shortest path conflict by a factor less than 7/6.

In this article we study the problem of designing a nation-wide communication network. Such networks usually consist of an access layer, a backbone layer, and maybe several intermediate layers. The nodes of each layer must be connected to those of the next layer in a tree-like fashion. The backbone layer has to satisfy certain survivability and routing constraints. Given the node locations, the demands between them, the possible connections and hardware configurations, and various other technical and administrational constraints, the goal is to decide, which node is assigned to which network level, how the nodes are connected, what hardware must be installed, and how traffic is routed in the backbone. Mixed integer linear programming models and solution methods are presented for both the access and the backbone network design problem. The focus is on the design of IP-over-SDH networks, but the access network design model and large parts of the backbone network design models are general and also applicable for other types of communication networks. Results obtained with these methods in the planning of the German research network are presented.

In this article, we present a mathematical model and an algorithm to support one of the central strategic planning decisions of network operators: How to organize a large number of locations into a hierarchical network? We propose a solution approach that is based on mixed-integer programming and Lagrangian relaxation techniques. As major advantage, our approach provides not only solutions but also worst-case quality guarantees. Real-world scenarios with more than 750 locations have been solved within 30 minutes to less than 1\% off optimality.