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Container Adaptors
(1999)

The C++ standard template library has many useful containers for data. The standard library includes two adpators, queue, and stack. The authors have extended this model along the lines of relational database semantics. Sometimes the analogy is striking, and we will point it out occasionally. An adaptor allows the standard algorithms to be used on a subset or modification of the data without having to copy the data elements into a new container. The authors provide many useful adaptors which can be used together to produce interesting views of data in a container.

In the clinical cancer therapy of regional hyperthermia nonlinear perfusion effects inside and outside the tumor seem to play a not negligible role. A stationary model of such effects leads to a nonlinear Helmholtz term within an elliptic boundary value problem. The present paper reports about the application of a recently designed adaptive multilevel FEM to this problem. For several 3D virtual patients, nonlinear versus linear model is studied. Moreover, the numerical efficiency of the new algorithm is compared with a former application of an adaptive FEM to the corresponding instationary model PDE.

The finite element setting for nonlinear elliptic PDEs directly leads to the minimization of convex functionals. Uniform ellipticity of the underlying PDE shows up as strict convexity of the arising nonlinear functional. The paper analyzes computational variants of Newton's method for convex optimization in an affine conjugate setting, which reflects the appropriate affine transformation behavior for this class of problems. First, an affine conjugate Newton--Mysovskikh type theorem on the local quadratic convergence of the exact Newton method in Hilbert spaces is given. It can be easily extended to inexact Newton methods, where the inner iteration is only approximately solved. For fixed finite dimension, a special implementation of a Newton--PCG algorithm is worked out. In this case, the suggested monitor for the inner iteration guarantees quadratic convergence of the outer iteration. In infinite dimensional problems, the PCG method may be just formally replaced by any Galerkin method such as FEM for linear elliptic problems. Instead of the algebraic inner iteration errors we now have to control the FE discretization errors, which is a standard task performed within any adaptive multilevel method. A careful study of the information gain per computational effort leads to the result that the quadratic convergence mode of the Newton--Galerkin algorithm is the best mode for the fixed dimensional case, whereas for an adaptive variable dimensional code a special linear convergence mode of the algorithm is definitely preferable. The theoretical results are then illustrated by numerical experiments with a {\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} algorithm.

The paper deals with the multilevel solution of {\em elliptic} partial differential equations (PDEs) in a {\em finite element} setting: {\em uniform ellipticity} of the PDE then goes with {\em strict monotonicity} of the derivative of a nonlinear convex functional. A {\em Newton multigrid method} is advocated, wherein {\em linear residuals} are evaluated within the multigrid method for the computation of the Newton corrections. The globalization is performed by some {\em damping} of the ordinary Newton corrections. The convergence results and the algorithm may be regarded as an extension of those for local Newton methods presented recently by the authors. An {\em affine conjugate} global convergence theory is given, which covers both the {\em exact} Newton method (neglecting the occurrence of approximation errors) and {\em inexact} Newton--Galerkin methods addressing the crucial issue of accuracy matching between discretization and iteration errors. The obtained theoretical results are directly applied for the construction of adaptive algorithms. Finally, illustrative numerical experiments with a~{\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} code are documented.

An affine invariant convergence analysis for inexact augmented Lagrangian-SQP methods is presented. The theory is used for the construction of an accuracy matching between iteration errors and truncation errors, which arise from the inexact linear system solves. The theoretical investigations are illustrated numerically by an optimal control problem for the Burgers equation.

Temperature based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex, but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation as in principle all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account. Here, a complete work flow for finite element based cooling simulation models is presented.
The following steps are demonstrated on CT-phantoms:
• CT-scan
• Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual
geometries
• Conversion of the segmentation result into a Finite Element (FE) simulation model
• Computation of the model cooling curve
• Calculation of the cooling time
For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are semi-automatically performed. The cooling time calculation results are compared to cooling measurements performed on the phantoms under controlled conditions. In this context, the method is validated using different CTphantoms. Some of the CT phantoms thermodynamic material parameters had to be experimentally determined via independent experiments. Moreover the impact of geometry and material parameter uncertainties on the estimated cooling time is investigated by a sensitivity analysis.

Numerische Mathematik 3
(2011)