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This paper introduces a new algorithm of conformational analysis based on mesh-free methods as described in [M. Weber. Mehless methods in Conformation Dynamics.(2005)]. The adaptive decomposition of the conformational space by softly limiting functions avoids trapping effects and allows adaptive refinement strategies. These properties of the algorithm makes ZIBgridfree particularly suitable for the complete exploration of high-dimensional conformational space. The adaptive control of the algorithm benefits from the tight integration of molecular simulation and conformational analysis. An emphasized part of the analysis is the Robust Perron Cluster Analysis (PCCA+) based on the work of Peter Deuflhard and Marcus Weber. PCCA+ supports an almost-characteristic cluster definition with an outstanding mapping of transition states. The outcome is expressed by the metastable sets of conformations, their thermodynamic weights and flexibility.

Supercomputers can simulate complex molecular systems. However, there is a very large gap between the fastest oscillations of covalent bonds of a molecule and the time-scale of the dominant processes. In order to extract the dominant time-scales and to identify the dominant processes, a clustering of information is needed. This thesis shows that only the subspace-based Robust Perron Cluster Analysis (PCCA+) can solve this problem correctly by the construction of a Markov State Model. PCCA+ allows for time-extrapolation in molecular kinetics. This thesis shows the difference between molecular dynamics and molecular kinetics. Only in the molecular kinetics framework a definition of transition rates is possible. In this context, the existence of an infinitesimal generator of the dynamical processes is discussed. If the existence is assumed, the Theorem of Gauß can be applied in order to compute transition rates efficiently. Molecular dynamics, however, is not able to provide a suitable statistical basis for the determination of the transition pattern.

The funnel trap paradox
(2012)

In this article, an illustrative example is given for the coarse-graining of a
Markov process which leads to a shift in the statistical weights of a two-states-system.
The example is based on a 2D-funnel trap. The funnel trap is constructed in such a
way, that the area inside and outside of the trap is identical. However, observing the
flight of the insect as a Markov process, the probability for being “in the trap” is higher.
This example can be transferred to several kinds of processes (like receptor-ligandbinding
processes in chemistry) and describes the influence of “re-entering events”.

For an analysis of a molecular system from a computational statistical thermodynamics point of view, extensive molecular dynamics simulations are very inefficient. During this procedure, at lot of redundant data is generated. Whereas the algorithms spend most of the computing time for a sampling of configurations within the basins of the potential energy landscape of the molecular system, the important information about the long-time behaviour of the molecules is given by transition regions and barriers between the basins, which are sampled rarely only. Thinking of molecular dynamics trajectories, researchers try to figure out which kind of dynamical model is suitable for an efficient simulation. This article suggests to change the point of view from extensive simulation of molecular dynamics trajectories to more efficient sampling strategies of the conformation dynamics approach.

This work aims to develop a new algorithm to calculate the free energy of water molecules by using a deterministic way.
For this purpose, we assume a closed system confined to a physical volume, having water molecules in gas phase.
To calculate the free energy of this sytem we utilized Mayer cluster expansion and the fluctuation free integration
method.

The rebinding effect is a phenomenon which occurs when observing a ligand-receptor binding process.
On the macro scale this process comprises the Markov property.
This Makovian view is spoiled when switching to the atomistic scale of a binding process.
We therefore suggest a model which accurately describes the rebinding effect on the atomistic scale by allowing ''intermediate'' bound states.
This allows us to define an indicator for the magnitude of rebinding and to formulate an optimization problem.
The results form our examples show good agreement with data form laboratory.

Recently, a novel approach for the analysis of molecular dynamics on the basis of a transfer operator has been introduced. Therein conformations are considered to be disjoint metastable clusters within position space of a molecule. These clusters are defined by almost invariant characteristic functions that can be computed via {\em Perron Cluster} analysis. The present paper suggests to replace crisp clusters with {\em fuzzy} clusters, i.e. to replace characteristic functions with membership functions. This allows a more sufficient characterization of transiton states between different confor conformations and therefore leads to a better understanding of molecular dynamics. Fur thermore, an indicator for the uniqueness of metastable fuzzy clusters and a fast algorithm for the computation of these clusters are described. Numerical examples are included.

Decomposition of the high dimensional conformational space of bio-molecules into metastable subsets is used for data reduction of long molecular trajectories in order to facilitate chemical analysis and to improve convergence of simulations within these subsets. The metastability is identified by the Perron-cluster cluster analysis of a Markov process that generates the thermodynamic distribution. A necessary prerequisite of this analysis is the discretization of the conformational space. A combinatorial approach via discretization of each degree of freedom will end in the so called ''curse of dimension''. In the following paper we analyze Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations of small, drug-like biomolecules and focus on the dihedral degrees of freedom as indicators of conformational changes. To avoid the ''curse of dimension'', the projection of the underlying Markov operator on each dihedral is analyzed according to its metastability. In each decomposition step of a recursive procedure, those significant dihedrals, which indicate high metastability, are used for further decomposition. The procedure is introduced as part of a hierarchical protocol of simulations at different temperatures. The convergence of simulations within metastable subsets is used as an ''a posteriori'' criterion for a successful identification of metastability. All results are presented with the visualization program AmiraMol.

The problem of clustering data can often be transformed into the problem of finding a hidden block diagonal structure in a stochastic matrix. Deuflhard et al. have proposed an algorithm that state s the number $k$ of clusters and uses the sign structure of $k$ eigenvectors of the stochastic matrix to solve the cluster problem. Recently Weber and Galliat discovered that this system of eigenvectors can easily be transformed into a system of $k$ membership functions or soft characteristic functions describing the clusters. In this article we explain the corresponding cluster algorithm and point out the underlying theory. By means of numerical examples we explain how the grade of membership can be interpreted.