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We propose a novel Riemannian framework for statistical analysis of shapes that is able to account for the nonlinearity in shape variation. By adopting a physical perspective, we introduce a differential representation that puts the local geometric variability into focus. We model these differential coordinates as elements of a Lie group thereby endowing our shape space with a non-Euclidian structure. A key advantage of our framework is that statistics in a manifold shape space become numerically tractable improving performance by several orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art. We show that our Riemannian model is well suited for the identification of intra-population variability as well as inter-population differences. In particular, we demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model in experiments on specificity and generalization ability. We further derive a statistical shape descriptor that outperforms the standard Euclidian approach in terms of shape-based classification of morphological disorders.

Creating motions of objects or characters that are physically plausible and follow an animator’s intent is a key task in computer animation. The spacetime constraints paradigm is a valuable approach to this problem, but it suffers from high computational costs. Based on spacetime constraints, we propose a technique that controls the motion of deformable objects and offers an interactive response. This is achieved by a model reduction of the underlying variational problem, which combines dimension reduction, multipoint linearization, and decoupling of ODEs. After a preprocess, the cost for creating or editing a motion is reduced to solving a number of one-dimensional spacetime problems, whose solutions are the wiggly splines introduced by Kass and Anderson [2008]. We achieve interactive response using a new fast and robust numerical scheme for solving a set of one-dimensional problems based on an explicit representation of the wiggly splines.

We introduce a scheme for real-time nonlinear interpolation of a set of shapes. The scheme exploits the structure of the shape interpolation problem, in particular, the fact that the set of all possible interpolated shapes is a low-dimensional object in a high-dimensional shape space. The interpolated shapes are defined as the minimizers of a nonlinear objective functional on the shape space. Our approach is to construct a reduced optimization problem that approximates its unreduced counterpart and can be solved in milliseconds. To achieve this, we restrict the optimization to a low-dimensional subspace that is specifically designed for the shape interpolation problem. The construction of the subspace is based on two components: a formula for the calculation of derivatives of the interpolated shapes and a Krylov-type sequence that combines the derivatives and the Hessian of the objective functional. To make the computational cost for solving the reduced optimization problem independent of the resolution of the example shapes, we combine the dimensional reduction with schemes for the efficient approximation of the reduced nonlinear objective functional and its gradient. In our experiments, we obtain rates of 20-100 interpolated shapes per second even for the largest examples which have 500k vertices per example shape.

Many efficient computational methods for physical simulation are based on model reduction. We propose new model reduction techniques for the approximation of reduced forces and for the construction of reduced shape spaces of deformable objects that accelerate the construction of a reduced dynamical system, increase the accuracy of the approximation, and simplify the implementation of model reduction. Based on the techniques, we introduce schemes for real-time simulation of deformable objects and interactive deformation-based editing of triangle or tet meshes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new techniques in different experiments with elastic solids and shells and compare them to alternative approaches.

Geometry processing
(2014)

Multiresolution meshes provide an efficient and structured representation of geometric objects. To increase the mesh resolution only at vital parts of the object, adaptive refinement is widely used. We propose a lossless compression scheme for these adaptive structures that exploits the parent-child relationships inherent to the mesh hierarchy. We use the rules that correspond to the adaptive refinement scheme and store bits only where some freedom of choice is left, leading to compact codes that are free of redundancy. Moreover, we extend the coder to sequences of meshes with varying refinement. The connectivity compression ratio of our method exceeds that of state-of-the-art coders by a factor of 2 to 7. For efficient compression of vertex positions we adapt popular wavelet-based coding schemes to the adaptive triangular and quadrangular cases to demonstrate the compatibility with our method. Akin to state-of-the-art coders, we use a zerotree to encode the resulting coefficients. Using improved context modeling we enhanced the zerotree compression, cutting the overall geometry data rate by 7% below those of the successful Progressive Geometry Compression. More importantly, by exploiting the existing refinement structure we achieve compression factors that are 4 times greater than those of coders which can handle irregular meshes.

We propose a framework for deformation-based surface modeling that is interactive, robust and intuitive to use. The deformations are described by a non-linear optimization problem that models static states of elastic shapes under external forces which implement the user input. Interactive response is achieved by a combination of model reduction, a robust energy approximation, and an efficient quasi-Newton solver. Motivated by the observation that a typical modeling session requires only a fraction of the full shape space of the underlying model, we use second and third derivatives of a deformation energy to construct a low-dimensional shape space that forms the feasible set for the optimization. Based on mesh coarsening, we propose an energy approximation scheme with adjustable approximation quality. The quasi-Newton solver guarantees superlinear convergence without the need of costly Hessian evaluations during modeling. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach on different examples including the test suite introduced in [Botsch and Sorkine 2008].

In this work, we study the spectra and eigenmodes of the Hessian of various discrete surface energies and discuss applications to shape analysis. In particular, we consider a physical model that describes the vibration modes and frequencies of a surface through the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Hessian of a deformation energy, and we derive a closed form representation for the Hessian (at the rest state of the energy) for a general class of deformation energies. Furthermore, we design a quadratic energy, such that the eigenmodes of the Hessian of this energy are sensitive to the extrinsic curvature of the surface.
Based on these spectra and eigenmodes, we derive two shape signatures. One that measures the similarity of points on a surface, and another that can be used to identify features of the surface. In addition, we discuss a spectral quadrangulation scheme for surfaces.