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HyperPlan is a software system for performing 3D-simulations and treatment planning in regional hyperthermia. It allows the user to understand the complex effects of electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transport inside a patient's body. Optimized power amplitudes and phase settings can be calculated for the BSD radiowave applicators Sigma 60 and Sigma 2000 (eye-applicator). HyperPlan is built on top of the modular, object-oriented visualization system Amira. This system already contains powerful algorithms for image processing, geometric modelling and 3D graphics display. HyperPlan provides a number of hyperthermia-specific modules, allowing the user to create 3D tetrahedral patient models suitable for treatment planning. In addition, all numerical simulation modules required for hyperthermia simulation are part of HyperPlan. This guide provides a step-by-step introduction to hyperthermia planning using HyperPlan. It also describes the usage of the underlying visualization system Amira.

Polygonale Schädelmodelle bilden ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel für computergestützte Planungen im Bereich der plastischen Chirurgie. Wir beschreiben, wie derartige Modelle automatisch aus hochaufgelösten CT-Datensätzen erzeugt werden können. Durch einen lokal steuerbaren Simplifizierungsalgorithmus werden die Modelle so weit vereinfacht, daß auch auf kleineren Graphikcomputern interaktives Arbeiten möglich wird. Die Verwendung eines speziellen Transparenzmodells ermöglicht den ungehinderten Blick auf die bei der Planung relevanten Knochenstrukturen und läßt den Benutzer zugleich die Kopfumrisse des Patienten erkennen.

In the field of deep regional hyperthermia, one of the most widely used devices is the BSD--2000 Hyperthermia System which employs the Sigma 60 applicator. The Sigma 60 consists of four independent sources, giving it the potential to control the energy pattern within the patient. The independent amplitudes and phases, as well as frequency selection and applicator position, present a large number of parameters for the operator to determine. Computer simulation has long been recognized as an attractive approach to optimizing these parameters. A treatment planning program was used in clinical practice at Stanford University Medical Center for two years. It demonstrated the feasibility of computer simulation for deep regional hyperthermia in a clinical situation. However, several parts of this system were written in a language specific to one workstation, which severely restricted the wider distribution of the program to other users of the Sigma 60. A new treatment planning system for the BSD 2000 has been developed and put into clinical practice at the Rudolf Virchow Clinic of the Free University of Berlin. The new method, which we will refer to as the Berlin system, has a simpler model construction program and a considerably better graphics capability. However, the most important feature is that all programs are written in FORTRAN, C, or the X Window graphics system. Therefore, the entire treatment planning system is completely portable to other workstations.

Electromagnetic phased arrays for regional hyperthermia -- optimal frequency and antenna arrangement
(2000)

In this paper we investigate the effects of the three-dimensional arrangement of antennas and frequency on temperature distributions that can be achieved in regional hyperthermia using an electromagnetic phased array. We compare the results of power-based and temperature-based optimization. Thus we are able to explain the discrepancies between previous studies favouring more antenna rings on the one hand and more antennas per ring on the other hand. We analyze the sensitivity of the results with respect to changes in amplitudes and phases as well as patient position. This analysis can be used for different purposes. First, it provides additional criteria for selecting the optimal frequency. Second, it can be used for specifying the required phase and amplitude accuracy for a real phased array system. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for technological developments in order to reduce both types of sensitivities described above.

We describe an optimization process specially designed for regional hyperthermia of deep seated tumors in order to achieve desired steady--state temperature distributions. A nonlinear three--dimensional heat transfer model based on temperature--dependent blood perfusion is applied to predict the temperature. Using linearly implicit methods in time and adaptive multilevel finite elements in space, we are able to integrate efficiently the instationary nonlinear heat equation with high accuracy. Optimal heating is obtained by minimizing an integral object function which measures the distance between desired and model predicted temperatures. A sequence of minima is calculated from successively improved constant--rate perfusion models employing a damped Newton method in an inner iteration. We compare temperature distributions for two individual patients calculated on coarse and fine spatial grids and present numerical results of optimizations for a Sigma 60 Applicator of the BSD 2000 Hyperthermia System.

This paper presents an automatic approach for segmentation of the liver from computer tomography (CT) images based on a 3D statistical shape model. Segmentation of the liver is an important prerequisite in liver surgery planning. One of the major challenges in building a 3D shape model from a training set of segmented instances of an object is the determination of the correspondence between different surfaces. We propose to use a geometric approach that is based on minimizing the distortion of the correspondence mapping between two different surfaces. For the adaption of the shape model to the image data a profile model based on the grey value appearance of the liver and its surrounding tissues in contrast enhanced CT data was developed. The robustness of this method results from a previous nonlinear diffusion filtering of the image data. Special focus is turned to the quantitative evaluation of the segmentation process. Several different error measures are discussed and implemented in a study involving more than 30 livers.

We present a new technique for generating surface meshes from a uniform set of discrete samples. Our method extends the well-known marching cubes algorithm used for computing polygonal isosurfaces. While in marching cubes each vertex of a cubic grid cell is binary classified as lying above or below an isosurface, in our approach an arbitrary number of vertex classes can be specified. Consequently the resulting surfaces consist of patches separating volumes of two different classes each. Similar to the marching cubes algorithm all grid cells are traversed and classified according to the number of different vertex classes involved and their arrangement. The solution for each configuration is computed based on a model that assigns probabilities to the vertices and interpolates them. We introduce an automatic method to find a triangulation which approximates the boundary surfaces - implicitly given by our model - in a topological correct way. Look-up tables guarantee a high performance of the algorithm. In medical applications our method can be used to extract surfaces from a 3D segmentation of tomographic images into multiple tissue types. The resulting surfaces are well suited for subsequent volumetric mesh generation, which is needed for simulation as well as visualization tasks. The proposed algorithm provides a robust and unique solution, avoiding ambiguities occuring in other methods. The method is of great significance in modeling and animation too, where it can be used for polygonalization of non-manifold implicit surfaces.

Adaptive Solutions of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Application to Hyperthermia Treatments
(1997)

We present a self-adaptive finite element method to solve nonlinear evolution problems in 3D. An implicit time integrator of Rosenbrock type is coupled with a multilevel approach in space. The proposed method is applied to hyperthermia treatments to demonstrate its potential for the solving of complicated problems.

We describe an optimization process specially designed for regional hyperthermia of deap seated tumors in order to achieve desired steady--state temperature distributions. A nonlinear three--dimensional heat--transfer model based on temperature--dependent blood perfusion is applied to predict the temperature. Optimal heating is obtained by minimizing an integral object function which measures the distance between desired and model predicted temperatures. Sequential minima are calculated from successively improved constant--rate perfusion models employing a damped Newton method in an inner iteration. Numerical results for a Sigma 60 applicator are presented. This work has been supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the Sonderforschungsbereich 273 \glqq Hyperthermie: Methodik und Klinik \grqq .