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{\bf Efficient eigenmode computation for the design of integrated optical chips.}The paper deals with adaptive multigrid methods for 2D Helmholtz eigenvalue problems arising in the design of integrated optical chips. Typical features of the technological problem are its geometric complexity, its multiscale structure, the possible occurrence of eigenvalue clusters, and the necessity of quite stringent required relative error tolerances. For reasons of sheer computational complexity, multigrid methods must be used to solve the discretized eigenvalue problems and adaptive grids must be automatically constructed to avoid an undesirable blow-up of the required number of nodes for these accuracies. In view of the problem specifications, an adaptive multigrid method based on Rayleigh quotient minimization, simultaneous eigenspace iteration, and conjugate gradient method as smoother is carefully selected. Its performance in the numerical simulation of a component of a rather recent optical chip (heterodyne receiver of HHI) is documented.

We present a general technique for constructing nonlocal transparent boundary conditions for one-dimensional Schrödinger-type equations. Our method supplies boundary conditions for the $\theta$-family of implicit one-step discretizations of Schrödinger's equation in time. The use of Mikusi\'nski's operator approach in time avoids direct and inverse transforms between time and frequency domains and thus implements the boundary conditions in a direct manner.

The paper presents a construction scheme of deriving transparent , i. e. reflection-free, boundary conditions for the numerical solution of Fresnel's equation (being formally equivalent to Schrödinger's equation). These boundary conditions appear to be of a nonlocal Cauchy type. As it turns out, each kind of linear implicit discretization induces its own discrete transparent boundary conditions.

An adaptive approach to the numerical solution of the wave propagation in integrated optics devices with 1D cross sections is described. First, Fresnel's approximation of the exact wave equation resulting from Maxwell's equations is considered. A criterion to estimate the validity of this approximation is derived. Fresnel's wave equation being formally equivalent to Schroedinger's equation uniquely defines an initial-boundary-value problem, which is solved numerically by a stepwise calculation of the propagating field. Discretization in longitudinal direction first with stepsize control leads to a stationary subproblem for the transversal field distribution, which is then handled by an adaptive finite element method. Thus full adaptivity of the algorithm is realized. The numerical examples are concentrated on taper structures playing an essential role in integrated optics devices for telecommunication systems.

We present a family of nonlocal transparent boundary conditions for the 2D Helmholtz equation. The whole domain, on which the Helmholtz equation is defined, is decomposed into an interior and an exterior domain. The corresponding interior Helmholtz problem is formulated as a variational problem in standard manner, representing a boundary value problem, whereas the exterior problem is posed as an initial value problem in the radial variable. This problem is then solved approximately by means of the Laplace transformation. The derived boundary conditions are asymptotically correct, model inhomogeneous exterior domains and are simple to implement.

The paper supplies an alternative derivation of the exact boundary conditions needed for the solution of time-harmonic acoustic scattering problems modeled by the Helmholtz equation. The main idea is to consider the exterior domain problem as an initial value problem with initial data given on the boundary of a disc or sphere. The solution of the exterior domain problem is obtained via Laplace transformation techniques, where the asymptotic Sommerfeld radiation condition is reformulated accordingly.

We establish the relationship between the transparent boundary condition (BPP) of Baskakov and Popov [Wave Motion 14 (1991) 121-128] and Pakpadakis et. al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92 (1992) 2030-2038] and a second boundary condition (SDY) introduced by Schmidt and Deuflhard [Comp. Math. Appl. 29 (1995) 53-76] and Schmidt and Yevick [J. Compu. Phys. 134 (1997) 96-107], that is explicitly tailored to the form of the underlying numerical propagation scheme. Our analysis demonstrates that if the domain is first discretized in the propagation direction, the SDY expression can be obtained by applying the exact sequence of steps used to derive the BPP procedure. The BPP method is thus an approximate realization of the computationally far simpler and unconditionally stable SDY boundary condition.

We derive exact discrete nonreflecting boundary conditions for time-harmonic scattering problems modeled by the Helmholtz equation. The main idea is to consider the exterior problem as an initial value problem with initial data given on the boundary of the computational domain. The solution of the exterior problem is obtained via Laplace transformation techniques which supply the boundary conditions in terms of discrete Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators.

This report collects a number of proposals to determine the lowest eigensolutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation. The basic routine of all discussed algorithms is the standard Rayleigh quotient minimization process. The minimization is performed in a direct multilevel manner, and a subspace iteration is used to determine simultaneously a couple of eigensolutions. As smoother the nonlinear Gauß-Seidel, the nonlinear conjugate gradient method and a preconditioned version of this method are compared with respect to their efficiency. The numerical examples are based on realistic 1D and 2D models of integrated optics components.