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The rapidly increasing number of AIDS cases requires a realistic estimation of the future development of the HIV/AIDS disease. For that purpose we develop a large system of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing simultaneously the dynamics of the development of the disease, the population size, the gender and age structure. A set of 1650 coupled equations are linked by balanced parameters. The balancing procedure is described by a set of (formally) 2,178,000 additional algebraic conditions. As the considered system is stiff, it requires new special extrapolation methods combined with techniquees of dynamical sparsing for the solution of sparsely filled systems. According to our simulations we expect 19,0,000 deaths caused by AIDS in the Federal Republic of Germany (former territories) in the year 2000. Such an epidemical spread would tie up about 4-7 percent of the actual health care workers.

This report presents new codes for the numerical solution of highly nonlinear systems. They realize the most recent variants of affine invariant Newton Techniques due to Deuflhard. The standard method is implemented in the code NLEQ1, whereas the code NLEQ2 contains a rank reduction device additionally. The code NLEQ1S is the sparse version of NLEQ1, i.e. the arising linear systems are solved with sparse matrix techniques. Within the new implementations a common design of the software in view of user interface and internal modularization is realized. Numerical experiments for some rather challenging examples illustrate robustness and efficiency of algorithm and software.

This report presents the final realization and implementation of a global inexact Newton method proposed by Deuflhard. In order to create a complete piece of software, a recently developed iterative solver (program GBIT) due to Deuflhard, Freund, Walter is adapted and serves as the standard iterative linear solver. Alternative linear iterative solvers may be adapted as well, e.g. the widely distributed code GMRES. The new software package GIANT (Global Inexact Affine Invariant Newton Techniques) allows an efficient and robust numerical solution of very large scale highly nonlinear systems. Due to the user friendly interface and its modular design, the software package is open for an easy adaptation to specific problems. Numerical experiments for some selected problems illustrate performance and usage of the package.

ZGUI-Handbuch
(1996)

In diesem Handbuch werden die Bausteine zum Aufbau einer graphischen Benutzeroberfläche mit {\tt ZGUI} beschrieben. Auf der einen Seite stehen die Tcl/Tk--Prozeduren, die die graphischen Elemente definieren. Die Beschreibung der Anwendung der Prozeduren und der Interaktionen der Elemente bildet den ersten Teil des Handbuches. Auf der anderen Seite stehen die Anforderungen an Anwendungen, die mit einer {\tt ZGUI}--Benutzeroberlfäche gesteuert werden sollen. Hier findet man im Handbuch die Beschreibung der Anwendungsprogrammierschnittstelle (application programming interface, API).

We present parallel formulations of the well established extrapolation algorithms EULSIM and LIMEX and its implementation on a distributed memory architecture. The discretization of partial differential equations by the method of lines yields large banded systems, which can be efficiently solved in parallel only by iterative methods. Polynomial preconditioning with a Neumann series expansion combined with an overlapping domain decomposition appears as a very efficient, robust and highly scalable preconditioner for different iterative solvers. A further advantage of this preconditioner is that all computation can be restricted to the overlap region as long as the subdomain problems are solved exactly. With this approach the iterative algorithms operate on very short vectors, the length of the vectors depends only on the number of gridpoints in the overlap region and the number of processors, but not on the size of the linear system. As the most reliable and fast iterative methods based on this preconditioning scheme appeared GMRES or FOM and BICGSTAB. To further reduce the number of iterations in GMRES or FOM we can reuse the Krylov-spaces constructed in preceeding extrapolation steps. The implementation of the method within the program LIMEX results in a highly parallel and scalable program for solving differential algebraic problems getting an almost linear speedup up to 64 processors even for medium size problems. Results are presented for a difficult application from chemical engineering simulating the formation of aerosols in industrial gas exhaust purification.

A new method for the numerical solution of highly nonlinear, coupled systems of parabolic differential equations in one space dimension is presented. The approach is based on a classical method of lines treatment. Time discretization is done by means of the semi--implicit Euler discretization. Space discretization is done with finite differences on non--uniform grids. Both basic discretizations are coupled with extrapolation techniques. With respect to time the extrapolation is of variable order whereas just one extrapolation step is done in space. Based on local error estimates for both, the time and the space discretization error, the accuracy of the numerical approximation is controlled and the discretization stepsizes are adapted automatically and simultaneously. Besides the local adaptation of the space grids after each integration step (static regridding), the grid may even move within each integration step (dynamic regridding). Thus, the whole algorithm has a high degree of adaptivity. Due to this fact, challenging problems from applications can be solved in an efficient and robust way.

Dieser Report enthält die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen, die gemäss dem Forschungs-- und Entwicklungsvertrag Gravity zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam und dem Konrad--Zuse--Zentrum Berlin vorgenommen wurden. Die damit vereinbarte wissenschaftliche Kooperation hat die folgenden Ziele: \item{die am GFZ vorhandenen Algorithmen und Softwaremodule auf ihre Effizienz hisichtlich Nutzung der Rechnerresourcen zu untersuchen und Lösungen für einen schnelleren Datendurchsatz zu entwickeln und zu implementieren,} \item{Methoden zur Regularisierung und Lösung schlecht konditionierter Normalgleichungssysteme (für Schwerefeldkoeffizienten) kritisch zu untersuchen und eine mathematisch objektive Strategie der Regularisierung zu entwickeln, und} \item{insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Anforderungen bei GRACE, verschiedene Bahnintegrationsverfahren hinsichtlich ihrer numerischen Genauigkeit und Einsatzmöglichkeiten zu untersuchen.}

MEXX (short for MEXanical systems eXtrapolation integrator) is a Fortran code for time integration of constrained mechanical systems. MEXX is suited for direct integration of the equations of motion in descriptor form. It is based on extrapolation of a time stepping method that is explicit in the differential equations and linearly implicit in the nonlinear constraints. It only requires the solution of well--structured systems of linear equations which can be solved with a computational work growing linearly with the number of bodies, in the case of multibody systems with few closed kinematic loops. Position and velocity constraints are enforced throughout the integration interval, whereas acceleration constraints need not be formulated. MEXX has options for time--continuous solution representation (useful for graphics) and for the location of events such as impacts. The present article describes MEXX and its underlying concepts.

Based on a simple stability analysis for the semi--implicit Euler discretization a new dynamic sparsing procedure is derived. This procedure automatically eliminates ``small'' elements of the Jacobian matrix. As a consequence, the amount of work needed to handle the linear algebra within a semi--implicit extrapolation integrator can be reduced drastically. Within the course of integration the sparsing criterion, which decides what ``small'' means, is dynamically adapted to ensure stability of the discretization scheme. Thus, stepsize restrictions due to instability can be avoided. Numerical experiments for quite different problems show robustness and efficiency of this dynamic sparsing technique. The techniques developed here in the context of stiff extrapolation integrators can, in principle, be applied to W--methods, where exact Jacobians may be replaced by ``sufficiently good'' approximations. {\bf Keywords:} Large scale integration, extrapolation methods, stiff ODEs, W--methods, sparse matrix techniques.

The paper surveys three aspects of chemical computing, which seem to play a role in recent developments. First, extrapolation methods for the numerical treatment of differential- algebraic equations are introduced. The associated extrapolation code LIMEX has reached a certain level of sophistication, which makes it a real competitor to the elsewhere widely used multi-step code DASSL of Petzold. Second, adaptive methods of lines for partial differential equations such as those arising in combustion problems are treated. Both static and dynamic regridding techniques are discussed in some detail. Finally, some new ideas about the treatment of the kinetic equations arising from polymer reactions are presented. The new feature of the suggested approach is the application of a Galerkin procedure using sets of orthogonal polynomials over a discrete variable (which, of course, in the case of polymer reactions is the polymer degree). The new approach may open the door to a new reliable low dimensional treatment of complex polymer reactions.