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#### Institute

The task of periodic timetabling is to schedule the trips in a public transport system by determining arrival and departure times at every station such that travel and transfer times are minimized. To date, the optimization literature generally assumes that passengers do not respond to changes in the timetable, i.e., the passenger routes are fixed. This is unrealistic and ignores potentially valuable degrees of freedom. We investigate in this paper periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We show that different routing models have a huge influence on the quality of the entire system: Whatever metric is applied, the performance ratios of timetables w.r.t. to different routing models can be arbitrarily large. Computations on a real-world instance for the city of Wuppertal substantiate the theoretical findings. These results indicate the existence of untapped optimization potentials that can be used to improve the efficiency of public transport systems.

The Cycle Embedding Problem
(2014)

Given two hypergraphs, representing a fine and a coarse "layer", and a cycle cover of the nodes of the coarse layer, the cycle embedding problem (CEP) asks for an embedding of the coarse cycles into the fine layer. The CEP is NP-hard for general hypergraphs, but it can be solved in polynomial time for graphs. We propose an integer rogramming formulation for the CEP that provides a complete escription of the CEP polytope for the graphical case. The CEP comes up in railway vehicle rotation scheduling. We present computational results for problem instances of DB Fernverkehr AG that justify a sequential coarse-first-fine-second planning approach.

The task of periodic timetabling is to determine trip arrival and departure times in a public transport system such that travel and transfer times are minimized. This paper investigates periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We show that different routing models can have a huge influence on the quality of the entire system: Whatever metric is applied, the performance ratios of timetables w.r.t. different routing models can be arbitrarily large. Computations on a real-world instance for the city of Wuppertal substantiate the theoretical findings. These results indicate the existence of untapped optimization potentials that can be used to improve the efficiency of public transport systems by integrating passenger routing.

The Cycle Embedding Problem
(2016)

We consider multi-commodity flow problems in which capacities are installed on paths. In this setting, it is often important to distinguish between flows on direct connection routes, using single paths, and flows that include path switching. We derive a feasibility condition for path capacities supporting such direct connection flows similar to the feasibility condition for arc capacities in ordinary multi-commodity flows.
The concept allows to solve large-scale real-world line planning problems in public transport including a novel passenger routing model that favors direct connections over connections with transfers.

Umsteigen ohne Warten
(2017)

Wir stellen einen mathematischen Optimierungsansatz zur Berechnung von periodischen Taktfahrplänen vor, bei dem die Umsteigezeiten unter
Berücksichtigung des Passagierverhaltens minimiert werden. Wir untersuchen damit den Einfluss wichtiger Systemparameter und Verhaltensmuster auf die Beförderungsqualität.

We propose a novel extended formulation for the line planning problem in public transport. It is based on a new concept of frequency configurations that account for all possible options to provide a required transportation capacity on an infrastructure edge. We show that this model yields a strong LP relaxation. It implies, in particular, general classes of facet defining inequalities for the standard model.

The task of timetabling is to schedule the trips in a public transport system by determining periodic arrival and departure times at every station. The goal is to provide a service that is both attractive for passengers and can be operated economically. To date, timetable optimization is generally done with respect to fixed passenger routes, i.e., it is assumed that passengers do not respond to changes in the timetable. This is unrealistic and ignores potentially valuable degrees of freedom. We investigate in this paper periodic timetabling models with integrated passenger routing. We propose several models that differ in the allowed passenger paths and the objectives. We compare these models theoretically and report on computations on real-world instances for the city of Wuppertal.

Periodic timetabling is an important strategic planning problem in public transport. The task is to determine periodic arrival and departure times of the lines in a given network, minimizing the travel time of the passengers. We extend the modulo network simplex method, a well-established heuristic for the periodic timetabling problem, by integrating a passenger (re)routing step into the pivot operations. Computations on real-world networks show that we can indeed find timetables with much shorter total travel time, when we take the passengers' travel paths into consideration.