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Mobile telecommunication systems establish a large number of communication links with a limited number of available frequencies; reuse of the same or adjacent frequencies on neighboring links causes interference. The task to find an assignment of frequencies to channels with minimal interference is the frequency assignment problem. The frequency assignment problem is usually treated as a graph coloring problem where the number of colors is minimized, but this approach does not model interference minimization correctly. We give in this paper a new integer programming formulation of the frequency assignment problem, the orientation model, and develop a heuristic two-stage method to solve it. The algorithm iteratively solves an outer and an inner optimization problem. The outer problem decides for each pair of communication links which link gets the higher frequency and leads to an acyclic subdigraph problem with additional longest path restrictions. The inner problem to find an optimal assignment respecting an orientation leads to a min-cost flow problem.

We present a graph-theoretic model for the \emph{frequency assignment problem} in Cellular Phone Networks: Obeying several technical and legal restrictions, frequencies have to be assigned to transceivers so that interference is as small as possible. This optimization problem is NP-hard. Good approximation cannot be guaranteed, unless P = NP. We describe several assignment heuristics. These heuristics are simple and not too hard to implement. We give an assessment of the heuristics' efficiency and practical usefulness. For this purpose, typical instances of frequency assignment problems with up to 4240 transceivers and 75 frequencies of a German cellular phone network operator are used. The results are satisfying from a practitioner's point of view. The best performing heuristics were integrated into a network planning system used in practice.

We present a mathematical formulation of a \emph{frequency assignment problem} encountered in cellular phone networks: frequencies have to be assigned to stationary transceivers (carriers) such that as little interference as possible is induced while obeying several technical and legal restrictions. The optimization problem is NP-hard, and no good approximation can be guaranteed---unless P = NP. We sketch some starting and improvement heuristics, and report on their successful application for solving the frequency assignment problem under consideration. Computational results on real-world instances with up to 2877 carriers and 50 frequencies are presented.

Mobile communication is nowadays taken for granted. Having started
primarily as a service for speech communication, data service and
mobile Internet access are now driving the evolution of network
infrastructure. Operators are facing the challenge to match the
demand by continuously expanding and upgrading the network
infrastructure. However, the evolution of the customer's demand is uncertain.
We introduce a novel (long-term) network planning approach based on
multistage stochastic programming, where demand evolution is considered as
a stochastic process and the network is extended as to maximize the
expected profit. The approach proves capable of designing large-scale
realistic UMTS networks with a time-horizon of several years. Our
mathematical optimization model, the solution approach, and computational
results are presented in this paper.

Frequenzplanung im Mobilfunk
(2002)

Telekommunikation ist seit Jahren \glqq in\grqq. Zunächst gab es einen enormen Aufschwung; neue Technologien und Dienste haben eine überwältigende, nicht vorhersehbare Akzeptanz gefunden. Derzeit ist -- ausgelöst durch die UMTS-Lizenzversteigerungen, Rezessions- und Sättigungstendenzen -- eine Krise zu verzeichnen. Viele (auch wir) sind davon überzeugt, dass technischer Fortschritt und nützliche Dienste demnächst die Stimmung wieder ändern werden. Wenigen ist allerdings bewusst, welche Rolle Mathematik bei der Entwicklung und dem effizienten Einsatz vieler der neuen Kommunikationstechnologien spielt. In diesem Artikel soll kein Überblick über diesen umfangreichen Themenkreis gegeben werden. Wir zeigen lediglich an einem konkreten Beispiel aus dem Mobilfunk, der Frequenzplanung in GSM-Funknetzen, was man durch geeignete Modellierung der praktischen Fragestellung und den Einsatz problemadäquater Algorithmen erreichen kann.

Signaling is crucial to the operation of modern telecommunication networks. A breakdown in the signaling infrastructure typically causes customer service failures, incurs revenue losses, and hampers the company image. Therefore, the signaling network has to be highest reliability and survivability. This in particular holds for the routers in such a network, called \textit{signaling transfer points\/} (STPs). The robustness of an STP can be improved by equally distributing the load over the internal processing units. Several constraints have to be taken into account. The load of the links connected to a processing unit changes over time introducing an imbalance of the load. In this paper, we show how integer linear programming can be applied to reduce the imbalance within an STP, while keeping the number of changes small. Two alternative models are presented. Computational experiments validate the integer programming approach in practice. The GSM network operator E-Plus saves substantial amounts of time and money by employing the proposed approach.

A model for the optimisation of the location and configuration of base stations in a UMTS network is described. The focus is primarily on modelling the configuration problem sufficiently accurate using mixed-integer variables and (essentially) linear constraints. These constraints reflect the limited downlink code capacity in each cell, the interference limitations for successful up- and downlink transmissions, the need for sufficiently strong (cell) pilot signals, and the potential gain for mobiles from being in soft(er) hand-over. It is also explained how to use the model as a basis for rating network configurations.

The UMTS radio network planning problem poses the challenge of designing a cost-effective network that provides users with sufficient coverage and capacity. We describe an optimization model for this problem that is based on comprehensive planning data of the EU project MOMENTUM. We present heuristic mathematical methods for this realistic model, including computational results.

We present publicly available data sets related to research on wireless networks. The scenarios contain a wide range of data and are detailed in all aspects. To our knowledge, this is the most realistic, comprehensive, and detailed \emph{public} data collection on mobile networking. We indicate example uses of this data collection in applications related tu UMTS.

This paper is concerned with UMTS radio network design. Our task is to reconfigure antennas and the related cells as to improve network quality. In contrast to second generation GSM networks, \emph{interference} plays a paramount role when designing third generation radio networks. A known compact formulation for assessing the interference characteristics of a radio network as coupling relations between cells based on user snapshots is generalized to statistical average load. This enables us to overcome the notorious difficulties of snapshot-based network optimization approaches. We recall a mixed-integer programming model for the network design problem that is based on user snapshots and contrast it with a new network design model based on the average coupling formulation. Exemplarily focusing on the important problem of optimizing antenna tilts, we give computational results for a fast local search algorithm and the application of a MIP solver to both models. These results demonstrate that our new average-based approaches outperform state-of-the-art snapshot models for UMTS radio network optimization.