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The paper addresses the possibilities of reducing the overall number of degrees of freedom in large scale reactive flow computations. Attention focusses on the dimension reduction technique ILDM due to {\sc Maas and Pope}, which treats certain automatically detected fast dynamic components as algebraic equations (so-called slow manifold). In earlier papers, the dimension of the reduction had been kept constant throughout each computation. Recently, a mathematically sound and nevertheless cheap dimension monitor for the chemistry part only has been suggested by {\sc Deuflhard and Heroth}. The present paper reports about first steps taken towards the implementation of that monitor into a flame code. Moreover, a sparse grid storage scheme is advocated and analyzed in view of the construction of efficient table look--ups for nested manifolds.

The finite element setting for nonlinear elliptic PDEs directly leads to the minimization of convex functionals. Uniform ellipticity of the underlying PDE shows up as strict convexity of the arising nonlinear functional. The paper analyzes computational variants of Newton's method for convex optimization in an affine conjugate setting, which reflects the appropriate affine transformation behavior for this class of problems. First, an affine conjugate Newton--Mysovskikh type theorem on the local quadratic convergence of the exact Newton method in Hilbert spaces is given. It can be easily extended to inexact Newton methods, where the inner iteration is only approximately solved. For fixed finite dimension, a special implementation of a Newton--PCG algorithm is worked out. In this case, the suggested monitor for the inner iteration guarantees quadratic convergence of the outer iteration. In infinite dimensional problems, the PCG method may be just formally replaced by any Galerkin method such as FEM for linear elliptic problems. Instead of the algebraic inner iteration errors we now have to control the FE discretization errors, which is a standard task performed within any adaptive multilevel method. A careful study of the information gain per computational effort leads to the result that the quadratic convergence mode of the Newton--Galerkin algorithm is the best mode for the fixed dimensional case, whereas for an adaptive variable dimensional code a special linear convergence mode of the algorithm is definitely preferable. The theoretical results are then illustrated by numerical experiments with a {\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} algorithm.

{\bf Efficient eigenmode computation for the design of integrated optical chips.}The paper deals with adaptive multigrid methods for 2D Helmholtz eigenvalue problems arising in the design of integrated optical chips. Typical features of the technological problem are its geometric complexity, its multiscale structure, the possible occurrence of eigenvalue clusters, and the necessity of quite stringent required relative error tolerances. For reasons of sheer computational complexity, multigrid methods must be used to solve the discretized eigenvalue problems and adaptive grids must be automatically constructed to avoid an undesirable blow-up of the required number of nodes for these accuracies. In view of the problem specifications, an adaptive multigrid method based on Rayleigh quotient minimization, simultaneous eigenspace iteration, and conjugate gradient method as smoother is carefully selected. Its performance in the numerical simulation of a component of a rather recent optical chip (heterodyne receiver of HHI) is documented.

After a short summary on therapy planning and the underlying technologies we discuss quantitative medicine by giving a short overview on medical image data, summarizing some applications of computer based treatment planning, and outlining requirements on medical planning systems. Then we continue with a description of our medical planning system {\sf HyperPlan}. It supports typical working steps in therapy planning, like data aquisition, segmentation, grid generation, numerical simulation and optimization, accompanying these with powerful visualization and interaction techniques.

Hyperthermia Treatment Planning in Clinical Cancer Therapy: Modelling, Simulation and Visualization
(1997)

\noindent The speaker and his co-workers in Scientific Computing and Visualization have established a close cooperation with medical doctors at the Rudolf--Virchow--Klinikum of the Humboldt University in Berlin on the topic of regional hyperthermia. In order to permit a patient--specific treatment planning, a special software system ({\sf\small HyperPlan}) has been developed. \noindent A mathematical model of the clinical system ({\it radio frequency applicator with 8 antennas, water bolus, individual patient body}) involves Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous media and a so--called bio--heat transfer PDE describing the temperature distribution in the human body. The electromagnetic field and the thermal phenomena need to be computed at a speed suitable for the clinical environment. An individual geometric patient model is generated as a quite complicated tetrahedral ``coarse'' grid (several thousands of nodes). Both Maxwell's equations and the bio--heat transfer equation are solved on that 3D--grid by means of {\em adaptive} multilevel finite element methods, which automatically refine the grid where necessary in view of the required accuracy. Finally optimal antenna parameters for the applicator are determined . \noindent All steps of the planning process are supported by powerful visualization methods. Medical images, contours, grids, simulated electromagnetic fields and temperature distributions can be displayed in combination. A number of new algorithms and techniques had to be developed and implemented. Special emphasis has been put on advanced 3D interaction methods and user interface issues.

The paper presents the concept of a new type of algorithm for the numerical computation of what the authors call the {\em essential dynamics\/} of molecular systems. Mathematically speaking, such systems are described by Hamiltonian differential equations. In the bulk of applications, individual trajectories are of no specific interest. Rather, time averages of physical observables or relaxation times of conformational changes need to be actually computed. In the language of dynamical systems, such information is contained in the natural invariant measure (infinite relaxation time) or in almost invariant sets ("large" finite relaxation times). The paper suggests the direct computation of these objects via eigenmodes of the associated Frobenius-Perron operator by means of a multilevel subdivision algorithm. The advocated approach is different to both Monte-Carlo techniques on the one hand and long term trajectory simulation on the other hand: in our setup long term trajectories are replaced by short term sub-trajectories, Monte-Carlo techniques are just structurally connected via the underlying Frobenius-Perron theory. Numerical experiments with a first version of our suggested algorithm are included to illustrate certain distinguishing properties. A more advanced version of the algorithm will be presented in a second part of this paper.

The paper deals with the multilevel solution of {\em elliptic} partial differential equations (PDEs) in a {\em finite element} setting: {\em uniform ellipticity} of the PDE then goes with {\em strict monotonicity} of the derivative of a nonlinear convex functional. A {\em Newton multigrid method} is advocated, wherein {\em linear residuals} are evaluated within the multigrid method for the computation of the Newton corrections. The globalization is performed by some {\em damping} of the ordinary Newton corrections. The convergence results and the algorithm may be regarded as an extension of those for local Newton methods presented recently by the authors. An {\em affine conjugate} global convergence theory is given, which covers both the {\em exact} Newton method (neglecting the occurrence of approximation errors) and {\em inexact} Newton--Galerkin methods addressing the crucial issue of accuracy matching between discretization and iteration errors. The obtained theoretical results are directly applied for the construction of adaptive algorithms. Finally, illustrative numerical experiments with a~{\sf NEWTON--KASKADE} code are documented.

The paper analyzes a splitting technique into fast and slow dynamical components of ODE systems as suggested by {\sc Maas and Pope} recently. Their technique is based on a real block -- Schur decomposition of the Jacobian of the right hand side of the ODE. As a result of the analysis, a computationally cheap monitor for the possible necessary recovering of the splitting is derived by singular perturbation theory. Numerical experiments on moderate size, but challenging reaction kinetics problems document the efficiency of the new device within a linearly-implicit stiff integrator.

Dynamical simulation of industrially relevant processes strongly advises the use of algorithms, which are {\em adaptive} both in time and in space discretization. The paper presents two alternatives: (a) a fully adaptive method of lines approach, which is based on finite difference methods and essentially applicable to 1D problems; (b) a fully adaptive Rothe method, which is based on a fast multilevel finite element method and applicable to 1D up to 3D.

Adopting a statistical approach for the computation of turbulent combustion flows an approximation for the probability density function (PDF) of the composition variables is often required to treat the highly non-linear reaction term in a satisfactory way. One class of methods currently being used are the moment methods which employ transport equations for low order statistical moments and use a parametrized shape of the PDF. A second class solves a transport equation for the joint PDF by a Monte Carlo method. In the present paper we develop an intermediate algorithm based on a Galerkin method for the PDF transport equation. The solution is developed in terms of an orthogonal or bi-orthogonal basis of a suitable Hilbert space. The unconventional use of the related weight function as a prefactor (moving weight approach) permits adaptivity and results in a generalization of the $\beta-$closure for bounded scalar quantities. We present the approximation procedure in detail and apply it to the evolution of the composition in a homogeneous well-stirred reactor. The extension to non-homogeneous flow simulations is straightforward.