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#### Keywords

- treewidth (7)
- lower bounds (4)
- contraction degeneracy (3)
- maximum cardinality search (2)
- preprocessing (2)
- probabilistic networks (2)
- treewidth lower bounds (2)
- Ramachandramurthi parameter (1)
- brambles (1)
- branchwidth (1)

Many {\cal NP}-hard graph problems can be solved in polynomial time for graphs with bounded treewidth. Equivalent results are known for pathwidth and branchwidth. In recent years, several studies have shown that this result is not only of theoretical interest but can successfully be applied to find (almost) optimal solutions or lower bounds for diverse optimization problems. To apply a tree decomposition approach, the treewidth of the graph has to be determined, independently of the application at hand. Although for fixed $k$, linear time algorithms exist to solve the decision problem ``treewidth $\leq k$'', their practical use is very limited. The computational tractability of treewidth has been rarely studied so far. In this paper, we compare four heuristics and two lower bounds for instances from applications such as the frequency assignment problem and the vertex coloring problem. Three of the heuristics are based on well-known algorithms to recognize triangulated graphs. The fourth heuristic recursively improves a tree decomposition by the computation of minimal separating vertex sets in subgraphs. Lower bounds can be computed from maximal cliques and the minimum degree of induced subgraphs. A computational analysis shows that the treewidth of several graphs can be identified by these methods. For other graphs, however, more sophisticated techniques are necessary.

The currently most efficient algorithm for inference with a probabilistic network builds upon a triangulation of a network's graph. In this paper, we show that pre-processing can help in finding good triangulations for probabilistic networks, that is, triangulations with a minimal maximum clique size. We provide a set of rules for stepwise reducing a graph, without losing optimality. This reduction allows us to solve the triangulation problem on a smaller graph. From the smaller graph's triangulation, a triangulation of the original graph is obtained by reversing the reduction steps. Our experimental results show that the graphs of some well-known real-life probabilistic networks can be triangulated optimally just by preprocessing; for other networks, huge reductions in their graph's size are obtained.

Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for weighted treewidth. They generalise many of the existing reduction rules for treewidth. Experimental results show that these reduction rules can significantly reduce the problem size for several instances of real-life probabilistic networks.

A set of vertices $S\subseteq V$ is called a safe separator for treewidth, if $S$ is a separator of $G$, and the treewidth of $G$ equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components $W$ of $G-S$ of the graph, obtained by making $S$ a clique in the subgraph of $G$, induced by $W\cup S$. We show that such safe separators are a very powerful tool for preprocessing graphs when we want to compute their treewidth. We give several sufficient conditions for separators to be safe, allowing such separators, if existing, to be found in polynomial time. In particular, every minimal separator of size one or two is safe, every minimal separator of size three that does not split off a component with only one vertex is safe, and every minimal separator that is an almost clique is safe; an almost clique is a set of vertices $W$ such that there is a $v\in W$ with $W-\{v\}$ a clique. We report on experiments that show significant reductions of instance sizes for graphs from proba! bilistic networks and frequency assignment.

Edge contraction is shown to be a useful mechanism to improve lower bound heuristics for treewidth. A successful lower bound for treewidth is the degeneracy: the maximum over all subgraphs of the minimum degree. The degeneracy is polynomial time computable. We introduce the notion of contraction degeneracy: the maximum over all minors of the minimum degree. We show that the contraction degeneracy problem is NP-complete, even for bipartite graphs, but for fixed $k$, it is polynomial time decidable if a given graph $G$ has contraction degeneracy at least $k$. Heuristics for computing the contraction degeneracy are proposed and evaluated. It is shown that these can lead in practice to considerable improvements of the lower bound for treewidth, but can perform arbitrarily bad on some examples. A study is also made for the combination of contraction with Lucena's lower bound based on Maximum Cardinality Search (Lucena, 2003). Finally, heuristics for the treewidth are proposed and! evaluated that combine contraction with a treewidth lower bound technique by Clautiaux et al (2003).

The parameter contraction degeneracy -- the maximum minimum degree over all minors of a graph -- is a treewidth lower bound and was first defined in (Bodlaender, Koster, Wolle, 2004). In experiments it was shown that this lower bound improves upon other treewidth lower bounds. In this note, we examine some relationships between the contraction degeneracy and connected components of a graph, block s of a graph and the genus of a graph. We also look at chordal graphs, and we study an upper bound on the contraction degeneracy and another lower bound for treewidth. A data structure that can be used for algorithms computing the degeneracy and similar parameters, is also described.

Every lower bound for treewidth can be extended by taking the maximum of the lower bound over all subgraphs or minors. This extension is shown to be a very vital idea for improving treewidth lower bounds. In this paper, we investigate a total of nine graph parameters, providing lower bounds for treewidth. The parameters have in common that they all are the vertex-degree of some vertex in a subgra ph or minor of the input graph. We show relations between these graph parameters and study their computational complexity. To allow a practical comparison of the bounds, we developed heuristic algorithms for those parameters that are NP-hard to compute. Computational experiments show that combining the treewidth lower bounds with minors can considerably improve the lower bounds.

The Maximum Cardinality Search algorithm visits the vertices of a graph in some order, such that at each step, an unvisited vertex that has the largest number of visited neighbors becomes visited. An MCS-ordering of a graph is an ordering of the vertices that can be generated by the Maximum Cardinality Search algorithm. The visited degree of a vertex $v$ in an MCS-ordering is the number of neighbors of $v$ that are before $v$ in the ordering. The visited degree of an MCS-ordering $\psi$ of $G$ is the maximum visited degree over all vertices $v$ in $\psi$. The maximum visited degree over all MCS-orderings of graph $G$ is called its {\em maximum visited degree}. Lucena (2003) showed that the treewidth of a graph $G$ is at least its maximum visited degree. We show that the maximum visited degree is of size $O(\log n)$ for planar graphs, and give examples of planar graphs $G$ with maximum visited degree $k$ with $O(k!)$ vertices, for all $k\in \Bbb{N}$. Given a graph $G$, it is NP-complete to determine if its maximum visited degree is at least $k$, for any fixed $k\geq 7$. Also, this problem does not have a polynomial time approximation algorithm with constant ratio, unless P=NP. Variants of the problem are also shown to be NP-complete. We also propose and experimentally analyses some heuristics for the problem. Several tiebreakers for the MCS algorithm are proposed and evaluated. We also give heuristics that give upper bounds on the value of the maximum visited degree of a graph, which appear to give results close to optimal on many graphs from real life applications.

In this paper we present a new technique for computing lower bounds for graph treewidth. Our technique is based on the fact that the treewidth of a graph $G$ is the maximum order of a bramble of $G$ minus one. We give two algorithms: one for general graphs, and one for planar graphs. The algorithm for planar graphs is shown to give a lower bound for both the treewidth and branchwidth that is at most a constant factor away from the optimum. For both algorithms, we report on extensive computational experiments that show that the algorithms give often excellent lower bounds, in particular when applied to (close to) planar graphs.

We give experimental and theoretical results on the problem of computing the treewidth of a graph by exact exponential time algorithms using exponential space or using only polynomial space. We first report on an implementation of a dynamic programming algorithm for computing the treewidth of a graph with running time $O^\ast(2^n)$. This algorithm is based on the old dynamic programming method introduced by Held and Karp for the {\sc Tra veling Salesman} problem. We use some optimizations that do not affect the worst case running time but improve on the running time on actual instances and can be seen to be practical for small instances. However, our experiments show that the space use d by the algorithm is an important factor to what input sizes the algorithm is effective. For this purpose, we settle the problem of computing treewidth under the restriction that the space used is only polynomial. In this direction we give a simple $O^\ast(4^n)$ al gorithm that requires {\em polynomial} space. We also show that with a more complicated algorithm, using balanced separators, {\sc Treewidth} can be computed in $O^\ast(2.9512^n)$ time and polynomial space.