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## Line Planning and Connectivity

• This thesis introduces the Steiner connectivity problem. It is a generalization of the well known Steiner tree problem. Given a graph G = (V, E) and a subset T ⊆ V of the nodes, the Steiner tree problem consists in finding a cost minimal set of edges connecting all nodes in T . The Steiner connectivity problem chooses, instead of edges, from a given set of paths a subset to connect all nodes in T . We show in the first part of this thesis that main results about complexity, approximation, integer programming formulations, and polyhedra can be generalized from the Steiner tree problem to the Steiner connectivity problem. An example for a straightforward generalization are the Steiner partition inequalities, a fundamental class of facet defining inequalities for the Steiner tree problem. They can be defined for the Steiner connectivity problem in an analogous way as for the Steiner tree problem. An example for a generalization that needs more effort is the definition of a directed cut formulation and the proof that this dominates the canonical undirected cut formulation enriched by all Steiner partition inequalities. For the Steiner connectivity problem this directed cut formulation leads to extended formulations, a concept that is not necessary for the Steiner tree problem. There are also major differences between both problems. For instance, the case T = V for the Steiner connectivity problem is equivalent to a set covering problem and, hence, not a polynomial solvable case as in the Steiner tree problem. The Steiner connectivity problem is not only an interesting generalization of the Steiner tree problem but also the underlying connectivity problem in line planning with inte- grated passenger routing. The integrated line planning and passenger routing problem is an important planning problem in service design of public transport and the topic of the second part. Given is the infrastructure network of a public transport system where the edges correspond to streets and tracks and the nodes correspond to stations/stops of lines. The task is to find paths in the infrastructure network for lines and passengers such that the capacities of the lines suffice to transport all passengers. Existing models in the literature that integrate a passenger routing in line planning either treat transfers in a rudimentary way and, hence, neglect an important aspect for the choice of the pas- senger routes, or they treat transfers in a too comprehensive way and cannot be solved for large scale real world problems. We propose a new model that focuses on direct connections. The attractiveness of transfer free connections is increased by introducing a transfer penalty for each non-direct connection. In this way, a passenger routing is computed that favors direct connections. For the computation of this model we also implemented algorithms influenced by the results for the Steiner connectivity problem. We can compute with our model good solutions that minimize a weighted sum of line operating costs and passengers travel times. These solutions improve the solutions of an existing approach, that does not consider direct connections, by up to 17%. In contrast to a comprehensive approach, that considers every transfer and for which we could not even solve the root LP within 10 hours for large instances, the solutions of the new model, computed in the same time, are close to optimality (<1%) or even optimal for real world instances. In a project with the Verkehr in Potsdam GmbH to compute the line plan for 2010 we showed that our approach is applicable in practice and can be used to solve real world problems.