## Adaptive Algorithms in Optimization under PDE Constraints

- In this thesis, adaptive algorithms in optimization under PDE constraints have been inves- tigated. In its application, the aim of optimization is to increase the longevity of implants, namely the hip joint implant, and in doing so to minimize stress shielding and simultaneously minimize the influence of locally high stresses, that, above a threshold value, are malign to the bone structure. Under the constraint of the equilibrium of forces, describing an elastodynamic setup, coupled with a contact inequality condition, a computationally expensive problem formulation is given. The first step to make the solution of the given problem possible and efficient was to change over to the spatial equilibrium equation, thus rendering an elastostatic setup. Subsequently the intrinsically dynamic motions – trajectories in the load domain – were converted to the static setup. Thus, the trajectories are marginalized to the load domain and characterized with probability distributions. Therefore the solving of the PDE constraint, the contact problem, is simplified. Yet in the whole optimization process, the solving of the PDE, the spatial equilibrium equation together with the contact condition has the most expensive contribution still and hence needed further reduction. This was achieved by application of Kriging interpolation to the load responses of the integrated distribution of stress difference and the maximum stresses. The interpolation of the two response surfaces only needs comparatively few PDE solves to set up the models. Moreover, the Kriging models can be adaptively extended by sequentially adding sample-response pairs. For this the Kriging inherent variance is used to estimate ideal new sample locations with maximum variance values. In doing so, the overall interpolation variance and therefore the interpolation error is reduced. For the integration of the integrated stress differences and penalty values on the relative high dimensional load domain Monte Carlo integration was implemented, averting the curse of dimension. Here, the motion’s probability distribution combined with patient specific data of motion frequencies is taken advantage of, making obsolete the use of the otherwise necessary importance sampling. Throughout the optimization, the FE-discretization error and the subsequently attached errors entering the solution process via PDE discretization and approximative solving of the PDE, Kriging interpolation and Monte Carlo integration need to decrease. While the FE-discretization error and the solution of the elastostatic contact problem were assumed precise enough, numerics showed, that the interpolation and integration errors can be controlled by adaptive refinement of the respective methods. For this purpose comparable error quantities for the particular algorithms were introduced and effectively put to use. For the implant position’s optimization, the derivative of the objective function was derived using the implicit function theorem. As the FE-discretization changes with implant position modifications big enough, a special line search had to be used to deal with the discontinuities in the objective function. The interplay and performance of the subalgorithms was demonstrated numerically on a reduced 2D setup of a hip joint with and without the implant. Consequently the load domain and the control variable were also limited to the 2D case.

Author: | Marian Moldenhauer |
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Document Type: | Doctoral Thesis |

MSC-Classification: | 65-XX NUMERICAL ANALYSIS |

Granting Institution: | Freie Universität Berlin |

Advisor: | Martin Weiser, Ralf Kornhuber |

Date of final exam: | 2021/06/09 |

Year of first publication: | 2021 |

Page Number: | 106 |