Fully automated Assessment of Knee Alignment from Full-Leg X-Rays employing a "YOLOv4 And Resnet Landmark regression Algorithm" (YARLA): Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

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  • We present a method for the quantification of knee alignment from full-leg X-Rays. A state-of-the-art object detector, YOLOv4, was trained to locate regions of interests (ROIs) in full-leg X-Ray images for the hip joint, the knee, and the ankle. Residual neural networks (ResNets) were trained to regress landmark coordinates for each ROI.Based on the detected landmarks the knee alignment, i.e., the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, was computed. The accuracy of landmark detection was evaluated by a comparison to manually placed landmarks for 360 legs in 180 X-Rays. The accuracy of HKA angle computations was assessed on the basis of 2,943 X-Rays. Results of YARLA were compared to the results of two independent image reading studies(Cooke; Duryea) both publicly accessible via the Osteoarthritis Initiative. The agreement was evaluated using Spearman's Rho, and weighted kappa as well as regarding the correspondence of the class assignment (varus/neutral/valgus). The average difference between YARLA and manually placed landmarks was less than 2.0+- 1.5 mm for all structures (hip, knee, ankle). The average mismatch between HKA angle determinations of Cooke and Duryea was 0.09 +- 0.63°; YARLA resulted in a mismatch of 0.10 +- 0.74° compared to Cooke and of 0.18 +- 0.64° compared to Duryea. Cooke and Duryea agreed almost perfectly with respect to a weighted kappa value of 0.86, and showed an excellent reliability as measured by a Spearman's Rho value of 0.99. Similar values were achieved by YARLA, i.e., a weighted kappa value of0.83 and 0.87 and a Spearman's Rho value of 0.98 and 0.99 to Cooke and Duryea,respectively. Cooke and Duryea agreed in 92% of all class assignments and YARLA did so in 90% against Cooke and 92% against Duryea. In conclusion, YARLA achieved results comparable to those of human experts and thus provides a basis for an automated assessment of knee alignment in full-leg X-Rays.

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Metadaten
Author:Alexander TackORCiD, Bernhard Preim, Stefan Zachow
Document Type:Article
Parent Title (German):Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Year of first publication:2020
Note:
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