## Analyzing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with deep learning: automatic detection of surgical tools and phases

• Motivation: The ever-rising volume of patients, high maintenance cost of operating rooms and time consuming analysis of surgical skills are fundamental problems that hamper the practical training of the next generation of surgeons. The hospitals prefer to keep the surgeons busy in real operations over training young surgeons for obvious economic reasons. One fundamental need in surgical training is the reduction of the time needed by the senior surgeon to review the endoscopic procedures performed by the young surgeon while minimizing the subjective bias in evaluation. The unprecedented performance of deep learning ushers the new age of data-driven automatic analysis of surgical skills. Method: Deep learning is capable of efficiently analyzing thousands of hours of laparoscopic video footage to provide an objective assessment of surgical skills. However, the traditional end-to-end setting of deep learning (video in, skill assessment out) is not explainable. Our strategy is to utilize the surgical process modeling framework to divide the surgical process into understandable components. This provides the opportunity to employ deep learning for superior yet automatic detection and evaluation of several aspects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy such as surgical tool and phase detection. We employ ZIBNet for the detection of surgical tool presence. ZIBNet employs pre-processing based on tool usage imbalance, a transfer learned 50-layer residual network (ResNet-50) and temporal smoothing. To encode the temporal evolution of tool usage (over the entire video sequence) that relates to the surgical phases, Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) units are employed with long-term dependency. Dataset: We used CHOLEC 80 dataset that consists of 80 videos of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by 13 surgeons, divided equally for training and testing. In these videos, up to three different tools (among 7 types of tools) can be present in a frame. Results: The mean average precision of the detection of all tools is 93.5 ranging between 86.8 and 99.3, a significant improvement (p <0.01) over the previous state-of-the-art. We observed that less frequent tools like Scissors, Irrigator, Specimen Bag etc. are more related to phase transitions. The overall precision (recall) of the detection of all surgical phases is 79.6 (81.3). Conclusion: While this is not the end goal for surgical skill analysis, the development of such a technological platform is essential toward a data-driven objective understanding of surgical skills. In future, we plan to investigate surgeon-in-the-loop analysis and feedback for surgical skill analysis.

Author: Manish Sahu, Angelika Szengel, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Stefan Zachow Other 28th International Congress of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) 2020 To appear in Special Issue of Surgical Endoscopy journal: Abstracts from the 28th International Congress of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) - Oral Presentations