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Effects of carbamazepine and two of its metabolites on the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius in a sediment full life cycle toxicity test

  • The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and its main metabolites carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (EP-CBZ) and 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-carbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ) were chosen as test substances to assess chronic toxicity on the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. All three substances were tested in a 40-day sediment full life cycle test (according to OECD 233) in which mortality, emergence, fertility, and clutch size were evaluated. In addition, these parameters were integrated into the population growth rate to reveal population relevant effects. With an LC50 of 0.203 mg/kg (time-weighted mean), the metabolite EP-CBZ was significantly more toxic than the parent substance CBZ (LC50: 1.11 mg/kg). Especially mortality, emergence, and fertility showed to be sensitive parameters under the exposure to CBZ and EP-CBZ. By using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding of CBZ to the ecdysone receptor was investigated as one possible mode of action but showed to be unlikely. The second metabolite DiOH-CBZ did not show any effects within the tested concentration rage (0.171 – 1.22 mg/kg). Even though CBZ was less toxic compared to EP-CBZ, CBZ is found in the environment at much higher concentrations and causes therefore a higher potential risk for sediment dwelling organisms compared to its metabolites. Nevertheless, the current study illustrates the importance of including commonly found metabolites into the risk assessment of parent substances.
Author:Katharina Heye, Dennis Becker, Christian Lütke-Eversloh, Vedat Durmaz, Thomas Ternes, Matthias Oetken, Jörg Oehlmann
Document Type:Article
Parent Title (English):Water Research
First Page:19
Last Page:27
Fulltext Url:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004313541630197X
Year of first publication:2016
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