Automatic Performance Optimization of Stencil Codes

  • A widely used class of codes are stencil codes. Their general structure is very simple: data points in a large grid are repeatedly recomputed from neighboring values. This predefined neighborhood is the so-called stencil. Despite their very simple structure, stencil codes are hard to optimize since only few computations are performed while a comparatively large number of values have to be accessed, i.e., stencil codes usually have a very low computational intensity. Moreover, the set of optimizations and their parameters also depend on the hardware on which the code is executed. To cut a long story short, current production compilers are not able to fully optimize this class of codes and optimizing each application by hand is not practical. As a remedy, we propose a set of optimizations and describe how they can be applied automatically by a code generator for the domain of stencil codes. A combination of a space and time tiling is able to increase the data locality, which significantly reduces the memory-bandwidth requirements: aA widely used class of codes are stencil codes. Their general structure is very simple: data points in a large grid are repeatedly recomputed from neighboring values. This predefined neighborhood is the so-called stencil. Despite their very simple structure, stencil codes are hard to optimize since only few computations are performed while a comparatively large number of values have to be accessed, i.e., stencil codes usually have a very low computational intensity. Moreover, the set of optimizations and their parameters also depend on the hardware on which the code is executed. To cut a long story short, current production compilers are not able to fully optimize this class of codes and optimizing each application by hand is not practical. As a remedy, we propose a set of optimizations and describe how they can be applied automatically by a code generator for the domain of stencil codes. A combination of a space and time tiling is able to increase the data locality, which significantly reduces the memory-bandwidth requirements: a standard three-dimensional 7-point Jacobi stencil can be accelerated by a factor of 3. This optimization can target basically any stencil code, while others are more specialized. E.g., support for arbitrary linear data layout transformations is especially beneficial for colored kernels, such as a Red-Black Gauss-Seidel smoother. On the one hand, an optimized data layout for such kernels reduces the bandwidth requirements while, on the other hand, it simplifies an explicit vectorization. Other noticeable optimizations described in detail are redundancy elimination techniques to eliminate common subexpressions both in a sequence of statements and across loop boundaries, arithmetic simplifications and normalizations, and the vectorization mentioned previously. In combination, these optimizations are able to increase the performance not only of the model problem given by Poisson’s equation, but also of real-world applications: an optical flow simulation and the simulation of a non-isothermal and non-Newtonian fluid flow.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Stefan Kronawitter
URN:urn:nbn:de:bvb:739-opus4-7618
Advisor:Christian Lengauer, Gerhard Wellein
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Year of Completion:2019
Date of Publication (online):2020/01/09
Date of first Publication:2020/01/09
Publishing Institution:Universität Passau
Granting Institution:Universität Passau, Fakultät für Informatik und Mathematik
Date of final exam:2019/12/10
Release Date:2020/01/09
GND Keyword:Optimierung; Codegenerierung
Pagenumber:xiii, 130 Seiten
Institutes:Fakultät für Informatik und Mathematik
Dewey Decimal Classification:0 Informatik, Informationswissenschaft, allgemeine Werke / 00 Informatik, Wissen, Systeme / 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik
open_access (DINI-Set):open_access
Licence (German):License LogoStandardbedingung laut Einverständniserklärung