## Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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- Bilevel optimization (8)
- Optimal control (7)
- Gas networks (6)
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- Convergence (5)
- Networks (5)
- Robust optimization (5)
- robust optimization (5)
- Branch-and-cut (4)
- Gas Networks (4)

The optimal control problems for the wave equation are considered on networks. The turnpike property is shown for the state equation, the adjoint state equation as well as the optimal cost. The shape and topology optimization is performed for the network with the shape functional given by the optimality system of the control problem. The set of admissible shapes for the network is compact in finite dimensions, thus the use of turnpike property is straightforward. The topology optimization is analysed for an example of nucleation of a small cycle at the internal node of network. The topological derivative of the cost is introduced and evaluated in the framework of domain decomposition technique. Numerical examples are provided.

We consider the Euler equations for a pipeline flow of a mixture of two gases. An important application is hydrogen blending. Existence and uniqueness of semi-global solutions is shown and possible boundary conditions are analyzed.
Secondly, we consider classes of associated optimal control problems and show existence of solutions.

In the operation of pipeline networks, compressors play a crucial role in ensuring the network’s functionality for various scenarios. In this contribution we address the important question of finding the optimal location of the compressors. This problem is of a novel structure, since it is related
with the gas dynamics that governs the network flow. That results in non-convex mixed integer stochastic optimization problems with probabilistic constraints.
Using a steady state model for the gas flow in pipeline networks including compressor control and uncertain loads given by certain probability distributions, the problem of finding the optimal location for the
control on the network, s.t. the control cost is minimal and the gas pressure stays within given bounds, is considered.
In the deterministic setting, explicit bounds for the pipe length and the inlet pressure, s.t. a unique optimal compressor location with minimal control cost exists, are presented. In the probabilistic setting,
an existence result for the optimal compressor location is presented and the uniqueness of the solution is discussed depending on the probability distribution. For Gaussian distributed loads a uniqueness result
for the optimal compressor location is presented.
Further the problem of finding the optimal compressor locations on networks including the number of compressor stations as variable is considered. Results for the existence of optimal locations on a graph in
both, the deterministic and the probabilistic setting, are presented and the uniqueness of the solutions is discussed depending on probability distributions and graph topology. The paper concludes with an illustrative example demonstrating that the compressor locations determined using a steady state approach are also admissible in transient settings.

On the Convergence of Optimization Problems with Kernel Density Estimated Probabilistic Constraints
(2024)

Uncertainty plays a significant role in applied mathematics and probabilistic constraints are widely used to model uncertainty in various fields, even if probabilistic constraints often demand computational challenges. Kernel density estimation (KDE) provides a data-driven approach for properly estimating probability density functions and efficiently evaluate corresponding probabilities.
In this paper, we investigate optimization problems with probabilistic constraints, where the probabilities are approximated using a KDE approach. We establish sufficient conditions under which the solution of the KDE approximated optimization problem converges to the solution of the original problem as the sample size goes to infinity.
The main results of this paper include three theorems: (1) For sufficiently large sample sizes, the solution of the original problem is also a solution of the approximated problem, if the probabilistic constraint is passive; (2) The limit of a convergent sequence of solutions of the approximated problems is a solution of the original problem, if the KDE uniformly converges; (3) We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of a convergent sequence of solutions of the approximated problems.

An Observer for pipeline flow with hydrogen blending in gas networks: exponential synchronization
(2024)

We consider a state estimation problem for gas flows in pipeline networks where hydrogen is blended into the natural gas. The flow is modeled by the quasi-linear isothermal Euler equations coupled to an advection equation on a graph. The flow through the vertices where the pipes are connected is governed by algebraic node conditions. The state is approximated by an observer system that uses nodal measurements. We prove that the state of the observer system converges to the original system state exponentially fast in the L2-norm if the measurements are exact. If measurement errors are present we show that the observer state approximates the original system state up to an error that is proportional to the maximal measurement error. The proof of the synchronization result uses Lyapunov functions with exponential weights.

We propose a framework that allows to quantitatively analyze the interplay of the different agents involved in gas trade and transport in the context of the European entry-exit system. While previous contributions focus on the case of perfectly competitive buyers and sellers of gas, our novel framework considers the mathematically more challenging case of a strategic and monopolistic gas seller. We present a multilevel framework that is suitable to capture the sequential nature of the decisions taken. We then derive sufficient conditions that allow for reformulating the challenging four-level model as a computationally tractable single-level reformulation. We prove the correctness of this reformulation and use it for solving several test instances to illustrate the applicability of our approach.

The dynamical, boundary optimal control problems
on networks are considered. The domain of definition for the distributed parameter system is given by a graph G. The optimal cost function for control problem is further optimized with respect to the shape and topology of the graph Ω. The small cycle is introduced and the topological derivative of the cost with respect to the size of the cycle is determined. In this way, the singular perturbations of the graph can be analyzed in order to change the topology Ω. The topological derivative method in shape and topology optimization is a new tool which can be used to minimize the shape functionals under the Partial Differential
Equations (PDEs) constraints. The topological derivative is used as well for solution of optimum design problems for graphs. In optimal control problems the topological derivative is used for
optimum design of the domain of integration of the state equation. As an example, optimal control problems are considered on a cross with a small cycle. The state equation is the wave equation
on the graph. The boundary control problem by Neumann
conditions at a boundary vertex is solved for a tracking cost function. The shape functional is given by the optimal value of the control cost. The topological derivative of the shape functional is determined for the steady state model with the size of a cycle ε → 0. Numerical results for a model problem are presented.

Optimal control problems usually involve constraints which model physical states and their possible transitions. These are represented by ordinary or partial differential equations (ODEs/PDEs) which add a component of infinite dimension to the problem. In recent literature, one method to simulate such ODEs/PDEs are physics-informed neural networks. Typically, neural networks are highly non-linear which makes their addition to optimization problems challenging. Hence, we leverage their often available Lipschitz property on a compact domain. The respective Lipschitz constants have to be computed only once and are accessible thereafter.
We present a method that, based on this property, iteratively adds cuts involving the violation of the constraints by the current incumbent and the Lipschitz constant. Hereby, the “shape” of a cut depends on the norm used. We prove the correctness of the method by showing that it either returns an optimal solution when terminating or creates a sequence with optimal accumulation points. This is complemented by a discussion about the termination in the infeasible case, as well as an analysis of the problem complexity. For the analysis, we show that the lower and upper iteration bound asymptotically coincide when the relative approximation error goes to zero. In the end, we visualize the method on a small example based on a two-dimensional non-convex optimization problem, as well as stress the necessity of having a globally optimal oracle for the sub-problems by another example.

In the transition to renewable energy sources, hydrogen will potentially play an important role for energy storage. The efficient transport of this gas is possible via pipelines. An understanding of the possibilities to control the gas flow in pipelines is one of the main building blocks towards the optimal use of gas.
For the operation of gas transport networks it is important to take into account the randomness of the consumers’ demand, where often information on the probability distribution is available.
Hence in an efficient optimal control model the corresponding probability should be included and the optimal control should be such that the state that is generated by the optimal control satisfies given state constraints with large probability. We comment on the modelling of gas pipeline flow and the problems of optimal nodal control with random demand, where the aim of the optimization is to determine controls that generate states that satisfy given pressure bounds with large probability. We include the H2 norm of the control as control cost, since this avoids large pressure fluctuations which are harmful in the transport of hydrogen since they can cause
embrittlement of the pipeline metal.

We analyse the turnpike properties for a general, infinite dimensional, linear-quadratic (LQ) optimal control problem, both in the deterministic and in the stochastic case.
The novelty of the paper is twofold. Firstly, it obtains positive turnpike results for
systems that are (partially) uncontrollable. Secondly, it provides turnpike results for averaged control associated to a family of problems that depend on a random parameter, which is the first turnpike type result in the averaged controllability framework.