## Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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An Observer for pipeline flow with hydrogen blending in gas networks: exponential synchronization
(2024)

We consider a state estimation problem for gas flows in pipeline networks where hydrogen is blended into the natural gas. The flow is modeled by the quasi-linear isothermal Euler equations coupled to an advection equation on a graph. The flow through the vertices where the pipes are connected is governed by algebraic node conditions. The state is approximated by an observer system that uses nodal measurements. We prove that the state of the observer system converges to the original system state exponentially fast in the L2-norm if the measurements are exact. If measurement errors are present we show that the observer state approximates the original system state up to an error that is proportional to the maximal measurement error. The proof of the synchronization result uses Lyapunov functions with exponential weights.

We propose a framework that allows to quantitatively analyze the interplay of the different agents involved in gas trade and transport in the context of the European entry-exit system. While previous contributions focus on the case of perfectly competitive buyers and sellers of gas, our novel framework considers the mathematically more challenging case of a strategic and monopolistic gas seller. We present a multilevel framework that is suitable to capture the sequential nature of the decisions taken. We then derive sufficient conditions that allow for reformulating the challenging four-level model as a computationally tractable single-level reformulation. We prove the correctness of this reformulation and use it for solving several test instances to illustrate the applicability of our approach.

The dynamical, boundary optimal control problems
on networks are considered. The domain of definition for the distributed parameter system is given by a graph G. The optimal cost function for control problem is further optimized with respect to the shape and topology of the graph Ω. The small cycle is introduced and the topological derivative of the cost with respect to the size of the cycle is determined. In this way, the singular perturbations of the graph can be analyzed in order to change the topology Ω. The topological derivative method in shape and topology optimization is a new tool which can be used to minimize the shape functionals under the Partial Differential
Equations (PDEs) constraints. The topological derivative is used as well for solution of optimum design problems for graphs. In optimal control problems the topological derivative is used for
optimum design of the domain of integration of the state equation. As an example, optimal control problems are considered on a cross with a small cycle. The state equation is the wave equation
on the graph. The boundary control problem by Neumann
conditions at a boundary vertex is solved for a tracking cost function. The shape functional is given by the optimal value of the control cost. The topological derivative of the shape functional is determined for the steady state model with the size of a cycle ε → 0. Numerical results for a model problem are presented.

Optimal control problems usually involve constraints which model physical states and their possible transitions. These are represented by ordinary or partial differential equations (ODEs/PDEs) which add a component of infinite dimension to the problem. In recent literature, one method to simulate such ODEs/PDEs are physics-informed neural networks. Typically, neural networks are highly non-linear which makes their addition to optimization problems challenging. Hence, we leverage their often available Lipschitz property on a compact domain. The respective Lipschitz constants have to be computed only once and are accessible thereafter.
We present a method that, based on this property, iteratively adds cuts involving the violation of the constraints by the current incumbent and the Lipschitz constant. Hereby, the “shape” of a cut depends on the norm used. We prove the correctness of the method by showing that it either returns an optimal solution when terminating or creates a sequence with optimal accumulation points. This is complemented by a discussion about the termination in the infeasible case, as well as an analysis of the problem complexity. For the analysis, we show that the lower and upper iteration bound asymptotically coincide when the relative approximation error goes to zero. In the end, we visualize the method on a small example based on a two-dimensional non-convex optimization problem, as well as stress the necessity of having a globally optimal oracle for the sub-problems by another example.

In the transition to renewable energy sources, hydrogen will potentially play an important role for energy storage. The efficient transport of this gas is possible via pipelines. An understanding of the possibilities to control the gas flow in pipelines is one of the main building blocks towards the optimal use of gas.
For the operation of gas transport networks it is important to take into account the randomness of the consumers’ demand, where often information on the probability distribution is available.
Hence in an efficient optimal control model the corresponding probability should be included and the optimal control should be such that the state that is generated by the optimal control satisfies given state constraints with large probability. We comment on the modelling of gas pipeline flow and the problems of optimal nodal control with random demand, where the aim of the optimization is to determine controls that generate states that satisfy given pressure bounds with large probability. We include the H2 norm of the control as control cost, since this avoids large pressure fluctuations which are harmful in the transport of hydrogen since they can cause
embrittlement of the pipeline metal.

We analyse the turnpike properties for a general, infinite dimensional, linear-quadratic (LQ) optimal control problem, both in the deterministic and in the stochastic case.
The novelty of the paper is twofold. Firstly, it obtains positive turnpike results for
systems that are (partially) uncontrollable. Secondly, it provides turnpike results for averaged control associated to a family of problems that depend on a random parameter, which is the first turnpike type result in the averaged controllability framework.

In this paper we analyze the turnpike phenomenon for optimal boundary control problems with a linear transport equation with source term. The convex objective function depends on
the boundary traces of the transport equation and is strictly convex with respect to the boundary control. We show an integral turnpike result for an optimal Dirichlet boundary control problem in the sense that if the time horizon goes to infinity, then the dynamic optimal control converges to
the corresponding steady state optimal control.
The novelty of this work is two-sided. On the one hand, even if turnpike results for this kind of optimal boundary control problem already exist, we present a new direct proof without using adjoint calculus that leads to sharper estimates. On the other hand we consider uncertainty in
the initial data and/or in the source term. We show that the integral turnpike result also holds considering uncertainty. Throughout the paper we use numerical examples to illustrate the results.

We consider a state estimation problem for gas pipeline flow modeled by the one-dimensional barotropic Euler equations. In order to reconstruct the system state, we construct an observer system of Luenberger type based on distributed measurements of one state variable. First, we show the existence of Lipschitz-continuous semi-global solutions of the observer system and of the original system for initial and boundary data satisfying smallness and compatibility conditions for a single pipe and for general networks. Second, based on an extension of the relative energy method we prove that the state of the observer system converges exponentially in the long time limit towards the original system state. We show this for a single pipe and for star-shaped networks.

The economics of global green ammonia trade – "Shipping Australian wind and sunshine to Germany"
(2023)

This paper contributes to understanding the transformation of global energy trade to green energy carriers, focusing on green ammonia as the foreseeable first green hydrogen carrier. We provide a comprehensive overview of today's ammonia trade and assess scaling options for the trade of green ammonia. To that aim, we develop an optimization model for the integrated assessment of the green ammonia value chain that covers all steps from green ammonia production in an exporting country, up to delivery to a harbor in an importing country. The model endogenously chooses among different technology options and determines cost minimal operation. In a case study, we apply the model to the large-scale import of ammonia from Australia to Germany in a scenario for 2030. The results show that green ammonia can reach cost parity with gray ammonia even for moderate gas prices (but not necessarily with blue ammonia) if CO2 prices are high enough. We also provide a sensitivity analysis with respect to the interest rate and other key technical and economic parameters and show that cracking ammonia to provide pure hydrogen comes at a 45 % cost markup per MWh at the destination.

We consider dynamic gas transport optimization problems, which lead to large-scale and nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problems (MINLPs) on graphs. Usually, the resulting instances are too challenging to be solved by state-of-the-art MINLP solvers. In this paper, we use graph decompositions to obtain multiple optimization problems on smaller blocks, which can be solved in parallel and which may result in simpler classes of optimization problems since not every block necessarily contains mixed-integer or nonlinear aspects. For achieving feasibility at the interfaces of the several blocks, we employ a tailored consensus-based penalty alternating direction method. Our numerical results show that such decomposition techniques can outperform the baseline approach of just solving the overall MINLP from scratch. However, a complete answer to the question of how to decompose MINLPs on graphs in dependence of the given model is still an open topic for future research.