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- Bilevel optimization (16)
- Gas networks (8)
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- Uniqueness (7)
- optimal control (7)
- Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Optimization (6)
- Mixed-integer optimization (6)
- Convergence (5)
- Gas Networks (5)

We consider the Euler equations for a pipeline flow of a mixture of two gases. An important application is hydrogen blending. Existence and uniqueness of semi-global solutions is shown and possible boundary conditions are analyzed.
Secondly, we consider classes of associated optimal control problems and show existence of solutions.

In the operation of pipeline networks, compressors play a crucial role in ensuring the network’s functionality for various scenarios. In this contribution we address the important question of finding the optimal location of the compressors. This problem is of a novel structure, since it is related
with the gas dynamics that governs the network flow. That results in non-convex mixed integer stochastic optimization problems with probabilistic constraints.
Using a steady state model for the gas flow in pipeline networks including compressor control and uncertain loads given by certain probability distributions, the problem of finding the optimal location for the
control on the network, s.t. the control cost is minimal and the gas pressure stays within given bounds, is considered.
In the deterministic setting, explicit bounds for the pipe length and the inlet pressure, s.t. a unique optimal compressor location with minimal control cost exists, are presented. In the probabilistic setting,
an existence result for the optimal compressor location is presented and the uniqueness of the solution is discussed depending on the probability distribution. For Gaussian distributed loads a uniqueness result
for the optimal compressor location is presented.
Further the problem of finding the optimal compressor locations on networks including the number of compressor stations as variable is considered. Results for the existence of optimal locations on a graph in
both, the deterministic and the probabilistic setting, are presented and the uniqueness of the solutions is discussed depending on probability distributions and graph topology. The paper concludes with an illustrative example demonstrating that the compressor locations determined using a steady state approach are also admissible in transient settings.

On the Convergence of Optimization Problems with Kernel Density Estimated Probabilistic Constraints
(2024)

Uncertainty plays a significant role in applied mathematics and probabilistic constraints are widely used to model uncertainty in various fields, even if probabilistic constraints often demand computational challenges. Kernel density estimation (KDE) provides a data-driven approach for properly estimating probability density functions and efficiently evaluate corresponding probabilities.
In this paper, we investigate optimization problems with probabilistic constraints, where the probabilities are approximated using a KDE approach. We establish sufficient conditions under which the solution of the KDE approximated optimization problem converges to the solution of the original problem as the sample size goes to infinity.
The main results of this paper include three theorems: (1) For sufficiently large sample sizes, the solution of the original problem is also a solution of the approximated problem, if the probabilistic constraint is passive; (2) The limit of a convergent sequence of solutions of the approximated problems is a solution of the original problem, if the KDE uniformly converges; (3) We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of a convergent sequence of solutions of the approximated problems.

We present a feedback scheme for non-cooperative dynamic games and investigate its stabilizing properties. The dynamic games are modeled as generalized Nash equilibrium problems (GNEP), in which the shared constraint consists of linear time-discrete dynamic equations (e.g., sampled from a partial or ordinary differential equation), which are jointly controlled by the players’ actions. Further, the individual objectives of the players are interdependent and defined over a fixed time horizon. The feedback law is synthesized by moving-horizon model predictive control (MPC). We investigate the asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop dynamics. To this end, we introduce α-quasi GNEPs, a family of auxiliary problems based on a modification of the Nikaido–Isoda function, which approximate the original games. Basing the MPC scheme on these auxiliary problems, we derive conditions on the players’ objectives, which guarantee asymptotic stability of the closed-loop if stabilizing end constraints are enforced. This analysis is based on showing that the associated optimal-value function is a Lyapunov function. Additionally, we identify a suitable Lyapunov function for the MPC scheme based on the original GNEP, whose solution fulfills the stabilizing end constraints. The theoretical results are complemented by numerical experiments.

Outer approximation for generalized convex mixed-integer nonlinear robust optimization problems
(2024)

We consider nonlinear robust optimization problems with mixed-integer decisions as well as nonconvexities. In detail, we consider cases where objective and constraint functions can be nonsmooth and generalized convex, i.e., f°-quasiconvex or f°-pseudoconvex.
We propose an algorithm for such robust optimization problems that does not require a certain structure of the adversarial problem but only requires that approximate worst cases are available. As a result, our algorithm finds a robust optimal solution up to a tolerance. Our method integrates a bundle method into an outer approximation approach where the bundle method is used for the arising continuous subproblems. We rely on methods from the literature, namely a bundle method for nonlinear and nonconvex robust optimization problems and outer approximation approaches for quasiconvex settings. Our contribution is to combine them to one convergent robust optimization method that can cope with inexactness of worst-case evaluations.
Further, we propose the gas transport under uncertainties as a relevant application and demonstrate that generalized convexity is fulfilled for a type of a network structure.

We study network design problems for nonlinear and nonconvex flow models under demand uncertainties. To this end, we apply the concept of adjustable robust optimization to compute a network design that admits a feasible transport for all, possibly infinitely many, demand scenarios within a given uncertainty set. For solving the corresponding adjustable robust mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem, we show that a given network design is robust feasible, i.e., it admits a feasible transport for all demand uncertainties, if and only if a finite number of worst-case demand scenarios can be routed through the network. We compute these worst-case scenarios by solving polynomially many nonlinear optimization problems. Embedding this result for robust feasibility in an adversarial approach leads to an exact algorithm that computes an optimal robust network design in a finite number of iterations. Since all of the results are valid for general potential-based flows, the approach can be applied to different utility networks such as gas, hydrogen, or water networks. We finally demonstrate the applicability of the method by computing robust gas networks that are protected from future demand fluctuations.

High-dimensional interpolation problems appear in various applications of uncertainty quantification, stochastic optimization and machine learning. Such problems are computationally expensive and request the use of adaptive grid generation strategies like anisotropic sparse grids to mitigate the curse of dimensionality. However, it is well known that the standard dimension-adaptive sparse grid method converges very slowly or even fails in the case of non-smooth functions. For piecewise smooth functions with kinks, we construct two novel hp-adaptive sparse grid collocation algorithms that combine low-order basis functions with local support in parts of the domain with less regularity and variable-order basis functions elsewhere. Spatial refinement is realized by means of a hierarchical multivariate knot tree which allows the construction of localised hierarchical basis functions with varying order. Hierarchical surplus is used as an error indicator to automatically detect the non-smooth region and adaptively refine the collocation points there. The local polynomial degrees are optionally selected by a greedy approach or a kink detection procedure. Three numerical benchmark examples with different dimensions are discussed and comparison with locally linear and highest degree basis functions are given to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methods.

Method-of-lines discretizations are demanding test problems for stiff inte-
gration methods. However, for PDE problems with known analytic solution
the presence of space discretization errors or the need to use codes to compute
reference solutions may limit the validity of numerical test results. To over-
come these drawbacks we present in this short note a simple test problem with
boundary control, a situation where one-step methods may suffer from order
reduction. We derive exact formulas for the solution of an optimal boundary
control problem governed by a one-dimensional discrete heat equation and an
objective function that measures the distance of the final state from the target
and the control costs. This analytical setting is used to compare the numeri-
cally observed convergence orders for selected implicit Runge-Kutta and Peer
two-step methods of classical order four which are suitable for optimal control
problems.

Physics informed neural networks have been recently proposed and offer a new promising method to solve differential equations. They have been adapted to many more scenarios and different variations of the original method have been proposed. In this case study we review many of these variations. We focus on variants that can compensate for imbalances in the loss function and perform a comprehensive numerical comparison of these variants with application to gas transport problems. Our case study includes different formulations of the loss function, different algorithmic loss balancing methods, different optimization schemes and different numbers of parameters and sampling points. We conclude that the original PINN approach with specifically chosen constant weights in the loss function gives the best results in our tests. These weights have been obtained by a computationally expensive random-search scheme. We further conclude for our test case that loss balancing methods which were developed for other differential equations have no benefit for gas transport problems, that the control volume physics informed formulation has no benefit against the initial formulation and that the best optimization strategy is the L-BFGS method.

This paper is concerned with the construction and convergence analysis
of novel implicit Peer triplets of two-step nature with four stages for nonlinear
ODE constrained optimal control problems. We combine the property of superconvergence
of some standard Peer method for inner grid points with carefully
designed starting and end methods to achieve order four for the state variables
and order three for the adjoint variables in a first-discretize-then-optimize approach
together with A-stability. The notion triplets emphasizes that these
three different Peer methods have to satisfy additional matching conditions.
Four such Peer triplets of practical interest are constructed. Also as a benchmark
method, the well-known backward differentiation formula BDF4, which is
only A(73.35)-stable, is extended to a special Peer triplet to supply an adjoint
consistent method of higher order and BDF type with equidistant nodes. Within
the class of Peer triplets, we found a diagonally implicit A(84)-stable method
with nodes symmetric in [0,1] to a common center that performs equally well.
Numerical tests with three well established optimal control problems confirm
the theoretical findings also concerning A-stability.