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Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der energetischen Nutzung von Rizinusöl

Prospects and Limits of the Energetic Use of Castor Oil

  • Das Ziel dieser Studie besteht daher in der Ermittlung und Bewertung der technischen und merkantilen Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von in Brasilien produziertem Rizinusöl. Neben einer Einschätzung der Marktchancen dieses hochwertigen Pflanzenöls in Deutschland und Europa besteht der Schwerpunkt insbesondere in der Darstellung der technischen Eigenschaften des Öls und der daraus resultierenden Eignung als Kraft-stoff in Form von naturbelassenem Öl und Biodiesel. Außerdem soll ein Überblick über moderne für Brasilien geeignete Pflanzenölaufbereitungstechnologien und Motorenkon-zepte, einschließlich der bisherigen Erfahrungen dazu in Deutschland, gegeben wer-den.
  • The castor (Rizinus communis L.) is a modest oil plant which grows well in tropical re-gions and is, in principal, appropriate as an energy source in the rural areas of the northeast of Brazil. The yield of oil is 500 kg/ha on average and reaches up to 2,000 kg/ha locally. Presently about 550,000 t of oil are produced annually in the world, to which Brazil contributes with only 10 %, this having been more than 60 % formerly. Most of the oil is used by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries of Europe, the USA and Japan. The question is whether castor oil or its derivates can also be used as an engine fuel. The present literature study commissioned by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ) will try to answer this question. Compared to rape seed oil, the density of castor oil is higher by 2 % to 5 %, the water content by 100 % to 300 % and the viscosity by 500 % to 700 %. Although the oxidation stability is better than that of rape seed oil and the heating value is similar, the viscosity (> 290 mm²/s)The castor (Rizinus communis L.) is a modest oil plant which grows well in tropical re-gions and is, in principal, appropriate as an energy source in the rural areas of the northeast of Brazil. The yield of oil is 500 kg/ha on average and reaches up to 2,000 kg/ha locally. Presently about 550,000 t of oil are produced annually in the world, to which Brazil contributes with only 10 %, this having been more than 60 % formerly. Most of the oil is used by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries of Europe, the USA and Japan. The question is whether castor oil or its derivates can also be used as an engine fuel. The present literature study commissioned by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ) will try to answer this question. Compared to rape seed oil, the density of castor oil is higher by 2 % to 5 %, the water content by 100 % to 300 % and the viscosity by 500 % to 700 %. Although the oxidation stability is better than that of rape seed oil and the heating value is similar, the viscosity (> 290 mm²/s) seems to be the main problem for the use of natural castor oil in diesel engines. It is therefore necessary to develop special engines, requiring a strong com-mitment by the engine industry. The adaptation of diesel engines with a simple kit - as is presently being tested for rape seed oil in Germany - seems to be insufficient. In addi-tion to the engine development, a quality standard similar to the rape seed fuel standard (RK-Qualitätsstandard resp. DIN 51506) in Germany also has to be developed. The processing of vegetable oil producing methyl or ethyl ester changes the fuel proper-ties, so that the so called biodiesel can be used in many modern diesel engines. Whether the methyl or ethyl ester from castor oil is also suited is until now unclear. Its high viscosity may also present a problem here. Nevertheless, there may be a possibil-ity of mixing it with conventional diesel fuel by up to 5 %, provided that the national, e.g. Brazilian, fuel standard permits this. In the case of exporting biodiesel on the basis of castor oil, the various national bio-diesel standards such as the European Norm DIN EN 14214 have to be kept to. Fur-thermore, the price should be lower than that of e.g. rape biodiesel which may be hard to reach as castor oil has nearly double the price of rape seed oil on the world market. However, castor is easy to cultivate, suited for small farming and could improve living conditions in rural areas. It could therefore be a very interesting energy source for elec-tricity and transport if the technical problems were solved.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:186-opus-56013
ISSN:0947-7314
Schriftenreihe (Bandnummer):Bornimer Agrartechnische Berichte (53)
Dokumentart:Einzelveröffentlichung / Monografie
Sprache:Deutsch
Erscheinungsjahr:2005
Urhebende Körperschaft:Leibniz- Institut für Agrartechnik Potsdam - Bornim e.V. (ATB)
Sonstige Beteiligte Körperschaft:Im Auftrag der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Eschborn
Datum der Freischaltung:26.02.2014
Freies Schlagwort / Tag:Biodiesel; Brasilien; Rizinusöl; energetische Nutzung
Biodiesel; Brazil; Castor Oil; Energetic Use
Landkreise / Gemeinden:Potsdam / Potsdam, Stadt
DDC-Klassifikation:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 63 Landwirtschaft / 630 Landwirtschaft und verwandte Bereiche
Kollektionen :Institutionen / Leibniz-Institut für Agrartechnik und Bioökonomie e.V. (ATB) / Bornimer Agrartechnische Berichte
Lizenz (Deutsch):Es gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht.