Utility of Smartphone-based Three-dimensional Surface Imaging for Digital Facial Anthropometry

  • Background The utilization of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for facial anthropometry is a significant asset for patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery. Notably, there have been recent advancements in smartphone technology that enable 3D surface imaging. In this study, anthropometric assessments of the face were performed using a smartphone and a sophisticated 3D surface imaging system. Methods 30 healthy volunteers (15 females and 15 males) were included in the study. An iPhone 14 Pro (Apple Inc., USA) using the application 3D Scanner App (Laan Consulting Corp., USA) and the Vectra M5 (Canfield Scientific, USA) were employed to create 3D surface models. For each participant, 19 anthropometric measurements were conducted on the 3D surface models. Subsequently, the anthropometric measurements generated by the two approaches were compared. The statistical techniques employed included the paired t-test, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Bland–Altman analysis, and calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results All measurements showed excellent agreement between smartphone-based and Vectra M5-based measurements (ICC between 0.85 and 0.97). Statistical analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the central tendencies for 17 of the 19 linear measurements. Despite the excellent agreement found, Bland–Altman analysis revealed that the 95% limits of agreement between the two methods exceeded ±3 mm for the majority of measurements. Conclusion Digital facial anthropometry using smartphones can serve as a valuable supplementary tool for surgeons, enhancing their communication with patients. However, the proposed data suggest that digital facial anthropometry using smartphones may not yet be suitable for certain diagnostic purposes that require high accuracy.

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Author:Robin Hartmann, Felix Nieberle, Christoph PalmORCiDGND, Vanessa Brébant, Lukas Prantl, Reinald Kuehle, Torsten E. Reichert, Juergen Taxis, Tobias Ettl
Parent Title (English):JPRAS Open
Document Type:Article
Year of first Publication:2024
Publishing Institution:Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg
Release Date:2024/02/19
Tag:Digital anthropometry; Facial anthropometry; Smartphone-based surface imaging; Stereophotogrammetry; Three-dimensional surface imaging
First Page:330
Last Page:343
Institutes:Fakultät Informatik und Mathematik
Regensburg Center of Biomedical Engineering - RCBE
Fakultät Informatik und Mathematik / Regensburg Medical Image Computing (ReMIC)
OpenAccess Publikationsweg:Gold Open Access- Erstveröffentlichung in einem/als Open-Access-Medium
research focus:Lebenswissenschaften und Ethik
Licence (German):Creative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International