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Boolean Operators AND, OR, NOT

With the Simple Search, all terms are automatically linked with AND. For a more targeted search, it is advisable to link several search terms using the Boolean operators.



AND

All entered search terms must appear in the document.



OR Only one of the search terms entered must appear in the document. This function extends the search area and is useful if there are different terms for a topic.

article OR paper


NOT This function has an exclusive effect and can be used to limit the number of results: Documents, which contain the one term, may not contain the other.

article NOT paper

The Boolean Operators also work for the Advanced Search. They can be used to combine different search terms within one search field. For example, the following search query returns all documents of the author "Doe" for the years 2002 or 2003:

Author: Doe
Year: 2002 OR 2003


Wildcards

If you are not sure how a search term, such as a name, is spelled, or if you want to expand your search, you can use "*" and "?" as a wildcard. It is not possible to use them in front of a term or search string.

Example 1: chemi* finds chemical but also chemistry or chemist.
Example 2: licen?e finds licence and license.

You can use double quotes (") to search for a phrase.