Innovation is proven to be an absolute requirement for growth in both developed and developing countries, but the type and motivation of innovations differ depending on various surrounding factors like socio-cultural attributes, geography, infrastructure, political environment and income-levels of customers. In developed countries innovations are often technology-driven and associated with delighting the end customers. On the contrary, in the developing or emerging markets due to the unique setting and infrastructural gaps innovations are focused towards meeting customer’s fundamental needs. Innovations in emerging markets are also seen as one of the drivers, utilized to address urgent developmental challenges such as poverty, illiteracy and lack of access to healthcare services. Considering these vast differences in driving factors, this research focuses on the comparison of the ongoing innovation fostering in both developed and developing world individually. This thesis is an attempt to understand the innovation landscape across these two worlds and focus on specific innovation approaches based on their potential and relevance.
In developed world, information technology (IT) is emerging out as the key enabling technology across different innovation approaches. This thesis focuses on one such innovative application of IT called technology convergence, which is an integration of information and operational technologies (Gartner, 2011). Significant financial and productivity benefits are expected from this convergence and therefore many industrial companies are investing heavily into this alignment and undergoing huge business transformations. This study analyses the case of General Electric undergoing such a strategic business transformation. Study conceptualizes a theoretical framework around this new concept by expanding the Venkatraman’s (1994) IT-enablement model and exhibiting evidences of non–linearity and overlap across different transformation stages. Study discloses, IT localized exploitation stage as a default stage for initiating technology convergence and illustrates that each stage of the transformation has an impact on a unique set of organizational dimensions. Business scope redefinition stage influences the dimension of strategy and vision while internal integration stage influences the organization’s structure dimension. The two dimensions that are impacted most during the business process and network redesign stages, are business process and products and markets respectively.
In contrast to the developed world where innovation approaches are focused on IT enabled performance enhancements, emerging markets are observing innovations centred on frugal products that are cost effective and provide value for money. Past two decades have seen a tremendous growth in emerging markets as they are developing their own innovative capabilities (Jiatao and Rajiv, 2009). Country like India, which is also a focus of this thesis, initially playing secondary roles has now become a breeding ground for frugal and social global innovations. This thesis discusses various types of innovation approaches adopted by local firms and multi-national companies in emerging markets such as frugal innovation, jugaad, disruptive innovation, gandhian innovation, catalytic innovation, indigenous innovation, resource-constrained innovation and bottom-up innovation. It identifies the increasing complexity and terminology confusion across these approaches in the growing and fragmented literature revolving around emerging markets. Targeting this shortcoming of the literature, this study attempts to consolidate the research insights into a unified framework defining eight main requirements of emerging markets namely cost-effective, easy-to-use, sustainable, problem-centric, no-frills, fast-to-market, resourceful and breakthrough. Additionally, study also analyses the priorities of these requirements during the buying and designing process from end customers and manufacturers point of view respectively. Research confirms “cost-effective” and “easy to use” as the absolute requirements of bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers and reveals the growing awareness towards eco-friendly products. It also introduces two additional important features from customer perspective namely – low/no maintenance or consumables and customized solutions to the framework.
Furthermore, research also touches upon the topic of social enterprises, medium to diffuse social innovations into emerging markets to address social challenges and developmental issues like poverty and access to healthcare services. Study uses event structure analysis and four growth stages identified by Perrini et al. (2010); opportunity identification, opportunity evaluation, opportunity exploitation and opportunity scaling-up to analyze two social healthcare enterprises in India. It proposes an abstract model of a social enterprise with the contributing generalized actions and their causal interactions. Thesis ends with a conclusion giving an overview and a consolidated view of innovation approaches existing in developed world and emerging markets. Additionally it reemphasises some of the limitations experienced during the research work and suggests related future research propositions.
The present dissertation traces how trends relating to globalization and demographic change impact on the labor market situation and retirement processes of older workers. The work focuses on Denmark, which is often cited as a role model for other OECD countries due to its specific institutional context and its traditionally high labor market participation of older people. In addition, the results from this Danish country study are compared to findings from Germany and the Netherlands, enabling an assessment of Denmark’s performance from a cross-country comparative perspective. In that context, the empirical analyses combine an examination of observed experiences in both the late career and the retirement process with how people themselves view their transition into the state of retirement.
BiAS 20 contains papers presented at the BiAS meeting 2014 in Windhoek (Namibia), with some additional contributions. Scholars from Nigeria, Cameroon, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia and Germany are dealing with the urgent question of how the Bible is involved in the widespread use of violence in political, social, religious, and gender conflicts. One leading question is how to deal with the textual representation of violence in the Bible. It is taken up by more general hermeneutical contributions. The other leading question is how biblical texts and/or concepts are used to cause and justify violence. This is taken up by a greater number of articles which deal with concrete societal and political contexts in Zimbabwe and other African countries. The conference in Namibia was supported as a Humboldt-Kolleg on the Bible and Violence in Africa by the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Modern software systems are becoming increasingly integrated and are required to operate over organizational boundaries through networks. The development of such distributed software systems has been shaped by the orthogonal trends of service-orientation and process-awareness. These trends put an emphasis on technological neutrality, loose coupling, independence from the execution platform, and location transparency. Execution platforms supporting these trends provide context and cross-cutting functionality to applications and are referred to as engines.
Applications and engines interface via language standards. The engine implements a standard. If an application is implemented in conformance to this standard, it can be executed on the engine. A primary motivation for the usage of standards is the portability of applications. Portability, the ability to move software among different execution platforms without the necessity for full or partial reengineering, protects from vendor lock-in and enables application migration to newer engines.
The arrival of cloud computing has made it easy to provision new and scalable execution platforms. To enable easy platform changes, existing international standards for implementing service-oriented and process-aware software name the portability of standardized artifacts as an important goal. Moreover, they provide platform-independent serialization formats that enable the portable implementation of applications. Nevertheless, practice shows that service-oriented and process-aware applications today are limited with respect to their portability. The reason for this is that engines rarely implement a complete standard, but leave out parts or differ in the interpretation of the standard. As a consequence, even applications that claim to be portable by conforming to a standard might not be so.
This thesis contributes to the development of portable service-oriented and process-aware software in two ways: Firstly, it provides evidence for the existence of portability issues and the insufficiency of standards for guaranteeing software portability. Secondly, it derives and validates a novel measurement framework for quantifying portability. We present a methodology for benchmarking the conformance of engines to a language standard and implement it in a fully automated benchmarking tool. Several test suites of conformance tests for two different languages, the Web Services Business Process Execution Language 2.0 and the Business Process Model and Notation 2.0, allow to uncover a variety of standard conformance issues in existing engines. This provides evidence that the standard-based portability of applications is a real issue. Based on these results, this thesis derives a measurement framework for portability. The framework is aligned to the ISO/IEC Systems and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation method, the recent revision of the renowned ISO/IEC software quality model and measurement methodology. This quality model separates the software quality characteristic of portability into the subcharacteristics of installability, adaptability, and replaceability. Each of these characteristics forms one part of the measurement framework. This thesis targets each characteristic with a separate analysis, metrics derivation, evaluation, and validation. We discuss existing metrics from the body of literature and derive new extensions speciffically tailored to the evaluation of service-oriented and process-aware software. Proposed metrics are defined formally and validated theoretically using an informal and a formal validation framework. Furthermore, the computation of the metrics has been prototypically implemented. This implementation is used to evaluate metrics performance in experiments based on large scale software libraries obtained from public open source software repositories.
In summary, this thesis provides evidence that contemporary standards and their implementations are not sufficient for enabling the portability of process-aware and service-oriented applications. Furthermore, it proposes, validates, and practically evaluates a framework for measuring portability.
The objective of the contributions presented in this volume is the investigation of authorship in pre-modern Arabic texts. From several angles and different perspectives it has been asked how the author in his various facets and aspects, and as a principle of organization and guidance, can be traced and understood. The author can be perceived as a historical individual, a singular genius, or a gifted anthologist; he can claim authority or pass it on to others. The author can be invisible, applying textual strategies for steering the reader’s perception and interpretation, trying to leave the reader oblivious to his authorial interference. Although authors can be proud to present their knowledge and their opinions, they can also be reluctant to show themselves and can even disclaim their responsibility, depending on the issue at hand. The contributions gathered in this volume provide a fresh view on the multilayered nature of authorial functions and open up new perspectives on our understanding of the rich and diverse pre-modern Arabic culture and literature.
In this volume, we are publishing three centuries of Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabet tables from Western sources. The illustrations presented here have been enhanced, cleaned up and digitally restored. Most of them have never been published in such a high quality before.
The second edition has been expanded to feature even more material.
An airport is the gateway which facilitates access to air transport. As a reaction to very diverse attacks on the air transport system during the last decades a broad range of security measures has been introduced to mitigate possible threats. The challenge to provide a trouble free experience for the passenger and, at the same time, to oper-ate more efficiently calls for a proactive approach. This requires the definition of future requirements that allow an adaptation of the security system. When dealing with uncertainty that future-oriented decisions inevitably display, it is important to gain as much knowledge as possible about a system’s general structure. The approach described in this paper systematically documents elements and relationships of the airport security system. It consists of threat scenario elements as well as security measures. The development of a software tool, the so-called Scenario Builder, is described and its application for the identification of possible future threats ex-plained. The presented approach offers intuitive access to the underlying structure of the airport security system. It provides decision makers with a possibility to interact with the system and anticipate effects of threat development, thereby enabling robust, future-oriented decisions.
The second album on "Slavic Alphabet tables" presents more than 60 additional sources: grammars and primers from Slavic countries (mainly Russia and Bulgaria, to a lesser degree Serbia), manuals on Old Church Slavonic, and several Western sources. It complements the first volume which was devoted to typographical works of Western origin.
The eponymous heroes of "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde", "The Picture of Dorian Gray" and "Dracula" are known to most through the medium of film. These novels were adapted early on in the history of the medium and have been revisited by film makers countless times. This book asks why they had such a lasting resonance in film. It claims that the monsters featured in these novels, which were written at the advent of cinematography, differ from previous Gothic leads: Jekyll/Hyde, Dorian Gray and Dracula were born from a sense of unease with the photographic image at a time when it began to move. They embody fears triggered by new ways of representing – and thus thinking about – the human body. Their exhibitions of deviant corporeality and its effect on others anticipate the representation of the human body in film as well as an audience’s reception of a film.
Through its numerous case studies, this monograph is able to show that film history can be told as a history of the representation of the human body. It features discussions of films as diverse as "Der Januskopf", "Nosferatu", "Vampyr", "Le Testament du Docteur Cordelier", "Altered States", "Dorian Gray im Spiegel der Boulevardpresse" and "Bram Stoker’s Dracula".
This volume deals with the financing of missions and missionaries which has been a headache for the church for ages. Many approaches to funding the proclamation of the gospel have often been very pragmatic, without a solid biblical foundation. In this book Paul’s claim to offer the gospel adapanon, or free of charge, is thoroughly discussed, and posed as a biblical approach to presenting the good news to the nations. This work does not only provide an in-depth look into the Scriptural basis for tentmaking, but also studies the social and historical background to the practise in the First Century Mediterranean, and in Twenty-First Century Botswana.
Information on the author:
Dr Johannes Wessels is a Post-Doctoral fellow at the North-West University, Mahikeng Campus (South Africa), and has been involved in missions since his years as a student at the same institution. Johannes has been a pastor in various contexts in South-Africa and Botswana for more than two decades, and is also involved in the management of Natanjá Christian School in Ottosdal, South Africa.