University of Bamberg Press
Distal and proximal indicators of teacher effectiveness as predictors of students' mathematics competence in Germany (Grade 5 – 7)
- The focus of research on educational effectiveness has turned from school effectiveness towards the effectiveness of the teachers as research in the recent past has shown that teachers are the most important determinant of student learning. However, there is still a lack of consensus as to whether teacher variables (distal) or teaching variables (proximal) are more important. A strong body of knowledge has shown the importance of teacher variables in student learning. However, Seidel and Shavelson (2007) in their recent meta-analyses claimed that teaching factors are more important than teacher factors because they are proximal to the teaching-learning process. They argued that past studies on teacher effectiveness using quasi experimental and experimental studies have shown stronger effect on student learning than correlational studies because they have measured teacher effectiveness proximally. Therefore, they suggested correlational studies should also measure teacher effectiveness proximally to get better results. Although, it may be true that proximal indicators are more important than distal indicators, but findings from a single meta-analysis study are not enough to diminish the significance of teacher factors. More research is needed in correlational studies to explore this issue. The current study aims to measure the effectiveness of both distal and proximal indicators of teacher effectiveness in order to see which factors strongly predict student competence in the domain of mathematics.
The study aims to investigate the role of teacher factors (teacher belief, professional training, planning, cooperation among teachers, job satisfaction and stress in planning and classroom) and their instruction (cognitive activation, cooperative learning, cognitively challenging tasks, student engagement and differentiation.) in the mathematics competence development of students. The design of my study is longitudinal in nature. National Educational Panel (NEPS) data is used to investigate the effect of teachers on students’ mathematics competence development from grade 5-7 with a sample of 151 teachers and their 1706 students. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the data in order to confirm the construct validity of the questionnaires. Mathematics competence was measured by NEPS through a standardized test at the beginning of grade 5 and grade 7. Multiple regression analyses and multi-group analyses were carried out in Mplus 7.11 to analyze the research questions. The study found that the following distal indicators are significant predictors of mathematics competence belief about deep learning, professional collaboration, individual needs of students, and stress in planning and classroom. Among proximal indicators student engagement, cognitively challenging tasks and differentiation showed the significant effect. Distal indicators explained 11% and proximal indicators explained 6% of the total variance in mathematics competence of students. The study found that distal indicators are stronger predictors of mathematics competence than proximal indicators and the importance of distal factors cannot be undermined. Once student previous mathematics competence was controlled for professional collaboration was no longer significant predictor and the amount of variance explained by distal and proximal factors decreased. A multi-group analysis was performed in order to examine do teachers in different school tracks (lower secondary school, middle secondary school, multi-track school, comprehensive school and grammar school) vary in effectiveness. However, no meaningful pattern of difference in teacher effectiveness across schools types was found. Implications of the findings are discussed.
The Dowry of the State? The Politics of Abandoned Property and the Population Exchange in Turkey, 1921-1945
- When the Greeks and surviving Armenians of present-day Turkey were forced to leave their homeland in 1922, the movable and immovable property they had to leave behind became known as „abandoned property“(emval-i metruke). In theory, this legal term implied that the absent owners continued to enjoy their property rights and were represented by the state. In practice, however, their houses, fields and belongings were stolen. They were used for the immediate housing needs of the remaining population, distributed among the rich and powerful and sold in public auctions. Initially, only a small part of abandoned property was under control of the new Ankara government, which was eager to use it as a source of revenue for the empty state coffers. Before it could do so, however, the government had to deal with various forms of active and passive resistance: homeless people and refugees squatted „abandoned“ homes and fields, and members of parliament initially refused to pass laws that would have legalized government administration of „abandoned“ property. From 1924 onwards, the property compensation for among incoming migrants from Greece (the so-called exchangees) threatened the financial interests of the state and pitted the newcomers against the existing population. By focusing on all these aspects of the „abandoned property“ question and the multiple forms of resistance against its administration by the state, this book offers unique insights into the social and political history of early republican Turkey.
A blend of MaLT: Selected contributions from the Methods and Linguistic Theories Symposium 2015
Benjamin P. Lange
- Over the past few decades, linguistic theorizing has benefited from an increasing trend towards empirical methodologies across all disciplines. Methodological know-how – both productive and receptive – has thus become one of the key qualifications for researchers. The empirical turn in linguistics has gone hand in hand with a considerable diversification of research methods. This diversity, which has come to be seen as a strength of linguistics as a field, has also benefited linguistic theory building. The present volume contains selected contributions from the 2015 Methods and Linguistic Theories (MaLT) symposium that address the aforementioned issues from an empirical and/or theoretical perspective. They can be seen as the essence of what MaLT was about, and illustrate the range of topics covered as well as the various concerns and approaches that featured during the event.
Emergence of a new type of family? Parenting intentions of homosexual women and men
- Christian Haag holds a diploma degree in Sociology from the University of Bamberg and also studied at the National University of Ireland in Galway. He has taught and researched at the chair of Sociology I at the University of Bamberg, at the State Institute for Family Research at the University of Bamberg (ifb), and at the Goethe University Frankfurt. His work is focussed on social inequality, life course research, and family sociology. Specialties include employment of women and mothers, reconciliation of family and employment, same-sex relationships and homosexuality, attitudes towards the family and normative images of the family, and parenting intentions, particularly in the context of artificial reproductive techniques.
In his dissertation, Christian Haag contributes to the body of research in family sociology in providing original results on parenting intentions of homosexual women and men. Based on a quantitative German dataset from the State Institute for Family Research at the University of Bamberg (ifb), the thesis delineates parenting intentions, finds evidence for influencing factors which are important in the development of these intentions, and furthermore describes and discusses intended family patterns of homosexual women and men. The implications are discussed at an individual and a societal level. Results throughout point towards the importance of the social and legal framework. Results and their implications extend to common issues and topics for all couples in treatment with assisted reproductive techniques.
Slavic Alphabet Tables - Volume 3: Odds and Ends (1530-1963)
- The third and final volume on "Slavic Alphabet Tables" rounds out the first two volumes with a lot of additional material. Several Slavic sources are being published here for the first time, and Romanian primers printed with Old Church Slavonic letters present a special focus of this volume.
Innovation Landscape in developed and developing markets. A conceptual and empirical study on technology convergence and low cost innovations
- Innovation is proven to be an absolute requirement for growth in both developed and developing countries, but the type and motivation of innovations differ depending on various surrounding factors like socio-cultural attributes, geography, infrastructure, political environment and income-levels of customers. In developed countries innovations are often technology-driven and associated with delighting the end customers. On the contrary, in the developing or emerging markets due to the unique setting and infrastructural gaps innovations are focused towards meeting customer’s fundamental needs. Innovations in emerging markets are also seen as one of the drivers, utilized to address urgent developmental challenges such as poverty, illiteracy and lack of access to healthcare services. Considering these vast differences in driving factors, this research focuses on the comparison of the ongoing innovation fostering in both developed and developing world individually. This thesis is an attempt to understand the innovation landscape across these two worlds and focus on specific innovation approaches based on their potential and relevance.
In developed world, information technology (IT) is emerging out as the key enabling technology across different innovation approaches. This thesis focuses on one such innovative application of IT called technology convergence, which is an integration of information and operational technologies (Gartner, 2011). Significant financial and productivity benefits are expected from this convergence and therefore many industrial companies are investing heavily into this alignment and undergoing huge business transformations. This study analyses the case of General Electric undergoing such a strategic business transformation. Study conceptualizes a theoretical framework around this new concept by expanding the Venkatraman’s (1994) IT-enablement model and exhibiting evidences of non–linearity and overlap across different transformation stages. Study discloses, IT localized exploitation stage as a default stage for initiating technology convergence and illustrates that each stage of the transformation has an impact on a unique set of organizational dimensions. Business scope redefinition stage influences the dimension of strategy and vision while internal integration stage influences the organization’s structure dimension. The two dimensions that are impacted most during the business process and network redesign stages, are business process and products and markets respectively.
In contrast to the developed world where innovation approaches are focused on IT enabled performance enhancements, emerging markets are observing innovations centred on frugal products that are cost effective and provide value for money. Past two decades have seen a tremendous growth in emerging markets as they are developing their own innovative capabilities (Jiatao and Rajiv, 2009). Country like India, which is also a focus of this thesis, initially playing secondary roles has now become a breeding ground for frugal and social global innovations. This thesis discusses various types of innovation approaches adopted by local firms and multi-national companies in emerging markets such as frugal innovation, jugaad, disruptive innovation, gandhian innovation, catalytic innovation, indigenous innovation, resource-constrained innovation and bottom-up innovation. It identifies the increasing complexity and terminology confusion across these approaches in the growing and fragmented literature revolving around emerging markets. Targeting this shortcoming of the literature, this study attempts to consolidate the research insights into a unified framework defining eight main requirements of emerging markets namely cost-effective, easy-to-use, sustainable, problem-centric, no-frills, fast-to-market, resourceful and breakthrough. Additionally, study also analyses the priorities of these requirements during the buying and designing process from end customers and manufacturers point of view respectively. Research confirms “cost-effective” and “easy to use” as the absolute requirements of bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers and reveals the growing awareness towards eco-friendly products. It also introduces two additional important features from customer perspective namely – low/no maintenance or consumables and customized solutions to the framework.
Furthermore, research also touches upon the topic of social enterprises, medium to diffuse social innovations into emerging markets to address social challenges and developmental issues like poverty and access to healthcare services. Study uses event structure analysis and four growth stages identified by Perrini et al. (2010); opportunity identification, opportunity evaluation, opportunity exploitation and opportunity scaling-up to analyze two social healthcare enterprises in India. It proposes an abstract model of a social enterprise with the contributing generalized actions and their causal interactions. Thesis ends with a conclusion giving an overview and a consolidated view of innovation approaches existing in developed world and emerging markets. Additionally it reemphasises some of the limitations experienced during the research work and suggests related future research propositions.
Who retires when and why? - A comparative analysis of retirement processes on the case study Denmark
- The present dissertation traces how trends relating to globalization and demographic change impact on the labor market situation and retirement processes of older workers. The work focuses on Denmark, which is often cited as a role model for other OECD countries due to its specific institutional context and its traditionally high labor market participation of older people. In addition, the results from this Danish country study are compared to findings from Germany and the Netherlands, enabling an assessment of Denmark’s performance from a cross-country comparative perspective. In that context, the empirical analyses combine an examination of observed experiences in both the late career and the retirement process with how people themselves view their transition into the state of retirement.
The Bible and Violence in Africa. Papers presented at the BiAS meeting 2014 in Windhoek (Namibia), with some additional contributions
Obert Bernhard Mlambo
Clive Tendai Zimunya
Theophilus Ugbedeojo Ejeh
Solomon Olusola Ademiluka
Sheila Wimbai Chamburuka
Phillemon Munyaradzi Chamburuka
Jacques Fullbert Owono
- BiAS 20 contains papers presented at the BiAS meeting 2014 in Windhoek (Namibia), with some additional contributions. Scholars from Nigeria, Cameroon, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia and Germany are dealing with the urgent question of how the Bible is involved in the widespread use of violence in political, social, religious, and gender conflicts. One leading question is how to deal with the textual representation of violence in the Bible. It is taken up by more general hermeneutical contributions. The other leading question is how biblical texts and/or concepts are used to cause and justify violence. This is taken up by a greater number of articles which deal with concrete societal and political contexts in Zimbabwe and other African countries. The conference in Namibia was supported as a Humboldt-Kolleg on the Bible and Violence in Africa by the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Portability of Process-Aware and Service-Oriented Software: Evidence and Metrics
- Modern software systems are becoming increasingly integrated and are required to operate over organizational boundaries through networks. The development of such distributed software systems has been shaped by the orthogonal trends of service-orientation and process-awareness. These trends put an emphasis on technological neutrality, loose coupling, independence from the execution platform, and location transparency. Execution platforms supporting these trends provide context and cross-cutting functionality to applications and are referred to as engines.
Applications and engines interface via language standards. The engine implements a standard. If an application is implemented in conformance to this standard, it can be executed on the engine. A primary motivation for the usage of standards is the portability of applications. Portability, the ability to move software among different execution platforms without the necessity for full or partial reengineering, protects from vendor lock-in and enables application migration to newer engines.
The arrival of cloud computing has made it easy to provision new and scalable execution platforms. To enable easy platform changes, existing international standards for implementing service-oriented and process-aware software name the portability of standardized artifacts as an important goal. Moreover, they provide platform-independent serialization formats that enable the portable implementation of applications. Nevertheless, practice shows that service-oriented and process-aware applications today are limited with respect to their portability. The reason for this is that engines rarely implement a complete standard, but leave out parts or differ in the interpretation of the standard. As a consequence, even applications that claim to be portable by conforming to a standard might not be so.
This thesis contributes to the development of portable service-oriented and process-aware software in two ways: Firstly, it provides evidence for the existence of portability issues and the insufficiency of standards for guaranteeing software portability. Secondly, it derives and validates a novel measurement framework for quantifying portability. We present a methodology for benchmarking the conformance of engines to a language standard and implement it in a fully automated benchmarking tool. Several test suites of conformance tests for two different languages, the Web Services Business Process Execution Language 2.0 and the Business Process Model and Notation 2.0, allow to uncover a variety of standard conformance issues in existing engines. This provides evidence that the standard-based portability of applications is a real issue. Based on these results, this thesis derives a measurement framework for portability. The framework is aligned to the ISO/IEC Systems and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation method, the recent revision of the renowned ISO/IEC software quality model and measurement methodology. This quality model separates the software quality characteristic of portability into the subcharacteristics of installability, adaptability, and replaceability. Each of these characteristics forms one part of the measurement framework. This thesis targets each characteristic with a separate analysis, metrics derivation, evaluation, and validation. We discuss existing metrics from the body of literature and derive new extensions speciffically tailored to the evaluation of service-oriented and process-aware software. Proposed metrics are defined formally and validated theoretically using an informal and a formal validation framework. Furthermore, the computation of the metrics has been prototypically implemented. This implementation is used to evaluate metrics performance in experiments based on large scale software libraries obtained from public open source software repositories.
In summary, this thesis provides evidence that contemporary standards and their implementations are not sufficient for enabling the portability of process-aware and service-oriented applications. Furthermore, it proposes, validates, and practically evaluates a framework for measuring portability.
Concepts of Authorship in Pre-Modern Arabic Texts
- The objective of the contributions presented in this volume is the investigation of authorship in pre-modern Arabic texts. From several angles and different perspectives it has been asked how the author in his various facets and aspects, and as a principle of organization and guidance, can be traced and understood. The author can be perceived as a historical individual, a singular genius, or a gifted anthologist; he can claim authority or pass it on to others. The author can be invisible, applying textual strategies for steering the reader’s perception and interpretation, trying to leave the reader oblivious to his authorial interference. Although authors can be proud to present their knowledge and their opinions, they can also be reluctant to show themselves and can even disclaim their responsibility, depending on the issue at hand. The contributions gathered in this volume provide a fresh view on the multilayered nature of authorial functions and open up new perspectives on our understanding of the rich and diverse pre-modern Arabic culture and literature.