- A literature-based definition and differentiation of the terms ´self-initiated expatriate`, ´assigned expatriate` and ´migrant` (2012)
- Addressing international mobility confusion – Developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated & assigned expatriates as well as migrants (2014)
- What distinguishes self-initiated expatriates from assigned expatriates and migrants? A literature-based definition and differentiation of terms (2012)
- What distinguishes self-initiated expatriates from assigned expatriates and migrants? A literature-based definition and differentiation of terms (2015)
- The goal of this paper is to examine regularities and differences in the application of the three terms assigned expatriate (AE), self-initiated expatriate (SIE) and migrant as the criteria for demarcation are unclear (Al Ariss, 2010; Baruch, Dickmann, Altman, &Bournois, 2010). This research adopts a qualitative approach, using the tool of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). The data base includes 244 definitions from 10 sociological, psychological and business journals. Results indicate that migrant is the umbrella term for AE and SIE. Therefore a SIE is a migrant who executes his dependent work abroad. In contrast to AEs, decision of employment is made by the host country organization and the first formalized action (i. e. job application) is undertaken by the individual.