- What makes them move abroad? Reviewing and exploring differences between self-initiated an assigned expatriation (2012)
- Only in recent years have self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) been distinguished from assigned expatriates (AEs). But there is still a lack of empirically based comparative results. Statistical analysis, performed on data from 193 expatriates (N AE = 67; N SIE = 126), indicates that self-initiated foreign work experience is significantly more likely to be chosen by women and those having lower job levels. Furthermore, boundaryless and protean career orientation only partially predicted which career path is chosen. SIEs have higher organizational mobility preferences, but do not differ from AEs in their boundaryless mindset and protean career attitude. Implications of these findings for research in expatriation are discussed.
- Career Concepts of Self-Initiated and Assigned Expatriates: A Theoretical Analysis Based on Coupling and Configuration (2012)
- A Taxonomy of Global Careers: Comparing global careerists to other international (and national) managers (2010)
- A taxonomy of global careers: Identifying different types of international managers. (2014)
- Research on expatriates indicates that substantial differences exist within internationally active employees. Several typologies of expatriates have been suggested to account for this diverseness. However, empirical evidence on the accuracy of these classification schemes is scarce. Based on these research efforts, we introduce a data-based taxonomy of internationally mobile managers. By means of sequence analysis we derive four career patterns from the curriculi vitae of 202 German managers. These patterns are built on the dimensions mobility and duration of the stays abroad. We further show that these patterns differ with regard to various individual and organizational variables. Based on these findings, we argue that expatriation career management practices and responsibilities need to be differentiated.