- Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Psychologie (95)
- Professur für Angewandte Informatik, insbesondere Kognitive Systeme (6)
- Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Informatik in den Kultur-, Geschichts- und Geowissenschaften (2)
- Professur für Allgemeine Psychologie (2)
- Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Marketing (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Medieninformatik (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Psychologische Diagnostik (1)
- Lehrstuhl für Psychologie I - Entwicklungspsychologie (1)
- Professur für Physiologische Psychologie (1)
- Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments. Post-Proceedings of the KI'11 Workshop (October 4th, 2011, TU Berlin, Germany) (2011)
- In the post-proceedings of the Workshop "Visibility in Information Spaces and in Geographic Environments" a selection of research papers is presented where the topic of visibility is addressed in different contexts. Visibility governs information selection in geographic environments as well as in information spaces and in cognition. The users of social media navigate in information spaces and at the same time, as embodied agents, they move in geographic environments. Both activities follow a similar type of information economy in which decisions by individuals or groups require a highly selective filtering to avoid information overload. In this context, visibility refers to the fact that in social processes some actors, topics or places are more salient than others. Formal notions of visibility include the centrality measures from social network analysis or the plethora of web page ranking methods. Recently, comparable approaches have been proposed to analyse activities in geographic environments: Place Rank, for instance, describes the social visibility of urban places based on the temporal sequence of tourist visit patterns. The workshop aimed to bring together researchers from AI, Geographic Information Science, Cognitive Science, and other disciplines who are interested in understanding how the different forms of visibility in information spaces and geographic environments relate to one another and how the results from basic research can be used to improve spatial search engines, geo-recommender systems or location-based social networks.
- When a Picasso is a "Picasso": The entry point in the identification of visual art (2010)
- We investigated whether art is distinguished from other real world objects in human cognition, in that art allows for a special memorial representation and identification based on artists' specific stylistic appearances. Testing art-experienced viewers, converging empirical evidence from three experiments, which have proved sensitive to addressing the question of initial object recognition, suggest that identification of visual art is at the subordinate level of the producing artist. Specifically, in a free naming task it was found that art-objects as opposed to non-art-objects were most frequently named with subordinate level categories, with the artist's name as the most frequent category (Experiment I). In a category-verification task (Experiment 2), art-objects were recognized faster than non-art-objects on the subordinate level with the artist's name. In a conceptual priming task, subordinate primes of artists' names facilitated matching responses to art-objects but subordinate primes did not facilitate responses to non-art-objects (Experiment 3). Collectively, these results suggest that the artist's name has a special status in the memorial representation of visual art and serves as a predominant entry point in recognition in art perception.
- The face of terrorism: Stereotypical Muslim facial attributes evoke implicit perception of threat (2012)
- Al-Qaida’s founder Osama bin Laden wore highly iconic paraphernalia (Carbon, 2008 Perception 37(5) 801–806), namely a turban and a characteristic beard. As the media consistently presented him in this distinctive style, his outward appearance formed a visual stereotype of Islamist terrorists that, in most cases, did not match the appearance of Islamist assassins. Using the multidimensional Implicit Association Test (md-IAT, Gattol et al, 2011 Plos One 6(1) e15849) we tested the effect of adding accordant stereotypical paraphernalia to male Caucasian faces (‘Muslim-version’): Compared to the original, non-manipulated versions, the ‘Muslim-versions’ were evaluated as being more irrational, unintelligent, unreliable and, particularly, as being more dangerous. Importantly, non-psychologists’ and psychologists’ data did not show any significant difference concerning these implicit measures but did so for explicit measures assessed by a further test. This dissociate data pattern demonstrates that iconic presentations elicit stereotypical associations independently of explicit reports. We argue that visual attributes like a particular kind of beard and a turban are associated with conformity to Islam, which is again associated with terrorist threat. More generally, the results suggest that the mere presence of visual attributes can induce implicit black-and-white categorization and undifferentiated prejudice toward people of other cultures.
- The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible (2013)
- Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.
- Thirty shades of truth: conspiracy theories as stories of individuation, not of pathological delusion (2013)
- Recent studies on conspiracy theories employ standardized questionnaires, thus neglecting their narrative qualities by reducing them to mere statements. Recipients are considered as consumers only. Two empirical studies—a conventional survey (n = 63) and a study using the method of narrative construction (n = 30)—which were recently conducted by the authors of this paper—suggest that the truth about conspiracy theories is more complex. Given a set of statements about a dramatic historic event (in our case 9/11) that includes official testimonies, allegations to a conspiracy and extremely conspiratorial statements, the majority of participants created a narrative of 9/11 they deemed plausible that might be considered a conspiracy theory. The resulting 30 idiosyncratic stories imply that no clear distinction between official story and conspiratorial narrative is possible any more when the common approach of questionnaires is abandoned. Based on these findings, we present a new theoretical and methodological approach which acknowledges conspiracy theories as a means of constructing and communicating a set of personal values. While broadening the view upon such theories, we stay compatible with other approaches that have focused on extreme theory types. In our view, accepting conspiracy theories as a common, regulative and possibly benign phenomenon, we will be better able to understand why some people cling to immunized, racist and off-wall stories—and others do not.