This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective
through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with
a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest
resources provided through work engagement into proactivity when job strain is low.
Under conditions of high job strain, work engagement is less likely to translate into
proactive behaviours. In contrast, for core task-related job performance, we expect work
engagement to be positively related to core job performance regardless of job strain. The
hypotheses were tested in a multisource field study among 148 employee
dyads. Focal employees self-rated their work engagement, job strain, and their
supervisor’s transformational leadership. Employee proactivity (personal initiative and
voice behaviour) and core job performance were rated by colleagues. The findings
support the moderated mediation model. Transformational leadership related positively
to work engagement and in turn to proactivity in terms of both personal initiative and
voice. Low job strain formed a necessary precondition for work engagement to translate
into higher proactivity, whereas the relationship between work engagement and core job
performance was independent from job strain.
This study aims to investigate the role of daily vitality as an energy-based mechanism through which sleep quantity and quality relate to proactive behavior. In addition, we propose that daily self-efficacy forms a contingency condition in that self-efficacy facilitates the translation of vitality into proactive behavior. We conducted a 7-day diary study based on a sample of 66 employees who completed surveys 3 times daily. We used multilevel regression analyses to test the hypotheses while controlling for the 1-day lagged measures of vitality and proactivity. The results provide evidence for a model of moderated mediation. Sleep quality but not quantity predicted an increase in daily vitality. Self-efficacy moderated the relationship between vitality and daily proactivity such that this relationship was stronger when self-efficacy was reported to be high rather than low. The conditional effect mediated by vitality was significant for sleep quality but not for sleep quantity and occurred at the within-person level of analysis. These results suggest that organizations aiming to boost daily proactivity in employees can benefit from increasing employees' self-efficacy and supporting them in developing strategies to ensure sufficient vitality. One such strategy is improving sleep quality. This study extends the literature on dynamics in proactive work behavior and its well-being-related antecedents by exploring both vitality as an underlying energetic mechanism and daily self-efficacy as a boundary condition. (PsycINFO Database Record
Research on business growth has been criticized for methodological weaknesses. We present a mediated moderation growth model as a new methodological approach. We hypothesized that small business managers’ age negatively affects business growth through focus on opportunities. We sampled 201 small business managers and obtained firm performance data over 5 years, resulting in 836 observations. Growth modeling showed systematic differences in firm performance trajectories. These differences could be explained by modeling focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationship between small business managers’ age and business growth. The study illustrates how mediation models can be tested using growth modeling.
Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, were view research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational wellbeing. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational wellbeing. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational wellbeing indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational wellbeing indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational wellbeing indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational wellbeing indicators can be line or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research.
Im Rahmen der Längsschnittstudie Bildungsprozesse, Kompetenzentwicklung und Selektionsentscheidungen im Vorschul- und Schulalter (BiKS) wurde im schulischen Kontext experimentell untersucht, wie sich unterschiedliche Arten der Frankierung des Rücksendeumschlags für Schülerfragebögen auf den Rücklauf auswirken. Dabei wurde die Stichprobe von N = 948 Sekundarschülern zufällig in drei Subgruppen geteilt, denen zur Rücksendung ihres Fragebogens je nach Bedingung ein portofreier Rücksendeumschlag, ein mit einer Automatenbriefmarke oder mit einer Sonderbriefmarke frankierter Rückumschlag zur Verfügung stand (drei Bedingungen). Unsere Analysen zeigen einen signifikant positiven Effekt der Sonderbriefmarke auf die Rücksendequote, dies vor allem bei Familien mit geringer Teilnahmeneigung.
The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat.
Leaders play a pivotal role in organizations. In the present study, we investigated the role of´Leaders 'DarkTriad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) on employees' objective career success (i.e., salary and number of promotions) and subjective career success (i.e., career satisfaction). Further, we investigated how leaders' Dark Triad traits affect employees' well-being (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). In a longitudinal study with two measurement points and a time lag of 3 months, 811 employees from the private and public sector in Germany participated. Results from multiple regressions showed that leaders' Dark Triad traits had, depending on the specific Dark Triad trait, bright and dark sides for employees. Narcissism turned out to be the brightest Dark Triad trait with benefits for subordinates' objective and subjective career success, and with no adverse effects on subordinates' well-being. Extending previous research by investigating the link between leaders' Dark Triad traits on subordinates' outcomes, we found evidence for the assumption that Machiavellianism and psychopathy have detrimental effects, also when considering subordinates' career success and well-being. Implications for leadership and career research are derived.
This study is based on the case of BMW, and aims to improve the determination of perceived consumer satisfaction in the automotive industry by transferring existing knowledge from the health care sector. A literature analysis of the health care sector and the automotive industry was conducted to identify the common concepts of determining satisfaction. These were the service encounter, situational factors, and sociodemographics. The practical application was tested by analyzing a contemporary survey from BMW. Based on the findings, managers responsible for customer satisfaction in after-sales services in the automotive industry could improve measurement of customer satisfaction.
Scholars have accumulated an abundant amount of knowledge on the association between work stressors and employees' health and well-being. However, notions of the complex interplay of physiological and psychological components of stress reactions are still in their infancy. Building on the Allostatic Load (AL) model, the present study considers short-term within-person effects of negative work events (NWEs) on indicators of both physiological (i.e., salivary cortisol) and psychological distress responses (i.e., negative affect and emotional exhaustion). Multilevel findings from an experience sampling study with 83 healthcare professionals suggest that reported NWEs predict employees' psychological but not endocrine stress responses. Results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of employees' daily response patterns to occupational stressors.
In diesem Aufsatz werden antisemitische Motive in mehreren Werken des russischen Schriftstellers Alexander Solschenizyn (1918-2008) analysiert, darunter »Der Archipel Gulag«, »November sechzehn«, »August vierzehn« und »Zweihundert Jahre zusammen«.