Lebewesen einen Artnamen zu geben ist ein erster Schritt zur Artenkenntnis, doch stellt er für viele Schülerinnen und Schüler eine Herausforderung dar. Für eine erfolgreiche Identifikation unbekannter Lebewesen ist man daher auf Hilfe von Experten oder auf Bestimmungshilfen angewiesen. Auch diese bauen auf Expertenwissen auf, welches für eine zielführende Bestimmung an die Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern angepasst werden muss. Digitale Bestimmungshilfen bieten die Möglichkeit, Lernangebote schülerorientiert zugänglich zu machen und so die Artbestimmung zu erleichtern.
Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p < 0.0001, η (2) = 0.07). Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG) decreased (F = 10.66, p < 0.0001, η (2) = 0.06), as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F = 84.57, η (2) = 0.32 and F = 12.61, η (2) = 0.07, resp.; p < 0.0001), while uric acid increased (F = 12.53, p < 0.0001, η (2) = 0.07) in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.
Contemporary office work is becoming increasingly challenging as many routine tasks are automated or outsourced. The remaining problem solving activities may also offer potential for lifelong learning in the workplace. In this study, we analyzed problem solving in an office work setting using an Internet-based, semi-standardized diary to collect data close to the process. Thirteen employees in commercial departments of an automotive supplier participated voluntarily; they recorded 64 domain-specific problem cases in total. Typical problems were moderately complex but rather urgent. They were detected by means of monitoring, augmented feedback or feedback from others. The problems detected provoked states of high arousal, including both negative and positive emotions. We found that seeking support from others was the most common approach to problem solving, and that in general problem solving offered considerable learning possibilities. Experts were confronted with more complex problems than novices, they more often solved problems using their domain-specific knowledge, but they also preferred social support. Surprisingly, experts reported higher negative emotional states after having detected a problem than novices. The results, the diary method and the limitations of the study are discussed.