Much attention is being paid to the planning of public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects. The subsequent implementation phase – when the contract has been signed and the project ‘starts rolling’ – has received less attention. However, sound agreements and good intentions in project planning can easily fail in project implementation. Implementing PPP infrastructure projects is complex, but what does this complexity entail? How are projects managed, and how do public and private partners cooperate in implementation? What are effective management strategies to achieve satisfactory outcomes? This is the fi rst set of questions addressed in this thesis. Importantly, the complexity of PPP infrastructure development imposes requirements on the evaluation methods that can be applied for studying these questions. Evaluation methods that ignore complexity do not create a realistic understanding of PPP implementation processes, with the consequence that evaluations tell us little about what works and what does not, in which contexts, and why. This hampers learning from evaluations. What are the requirements for a complexity-informed evaluation method? And how does qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) meet these requirements? This is the second set of questions addressed in this thesis.
Background: The InsuPad is a medical device to accelerate insulin resorption by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. This crossover study examined the impact of the InsuPad use on postprandial glucose excursions under daily life conditions.
Methods: In 1 study phase, diabetic patients used the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin before breakfast and dinner and measured their blood glucose 5 times daily (before breakfast, lunch, and dinner and after breakfast and dinner). In the other study phase, blood glucose measurements were maintained without using the InsuPad. The order of the study phases was randomized.
Results: Twenty patients with a high insulin demand took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age 53.7 ± 8.9 years, diabetes duration 14.9 ± 7.4 years; HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%; total daily insulin demand 0.97 ± 0.32 IU per kg). Postprandial glucose excursion was reduced by 15.4 mg/dl (95% CI 9.7-21.2 mg/dl; P = .011) after breakfast and dinner if InsuPad was used. The mean blood glucose was lower by 8.8 mg/dl (95% CI 0:3-18:0 mg/dl; P = .099) when using the InsuPad. Safety parameters and the percentage of hypoglycemic (< 60 mg/dl) or hyperglycemic (> 300 mg/dl) blood glucose measurements were not negatively affected by InsuPad use (hypoglycemic values 1.4% vs 1.5%, P = .961; hyperglycemic values 2.6% vs 4.0%, P = .098).
Conclusions: Local heating of the insulin injection site by use of the InsuPad device is an effective and safe method to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions under daily life conditions without negative side effects on the occurrence of low or high blood glucose values.