The use of IT-enabled crowdsourcing with employees in enterprises has increased substantially in recent years. This phenomenon, which we refer to as ‘internal crowdsourcing’, is distinct both from external crowdsourcing with end users and from hierarchy-based work with employees. A literature stream has emerged that corresponds with the increased relevance of internal crowdsourcing in practice. The purpose of this review paper of internal crowdsourcing is to provide conceptual development, synthesise the literature, and provide a research agenda. In the review reported in this paper, we systematically analysed and critically reviewed the literature in this domain published thus far (74 papers). We found useful findings and insights into a new and relevant IT-enabled phenomenon. At the same time, we also found conflicting definitions and conceptualisation, as well as research efforts that are not well integrated. The paper supports future research on internal crowdsourcing by providing improved conceptualisation, consolidating insights, and identifying important areas for future research.
In this article, we examine the relationship between metrics documenting politics-related Twitter activity with election results and trends in opinion polls. Various studies have proposed the possibility of inferring public opinion based on digital trace data collected on Twitter and even the possibility to predict election results based on aggregates of mentions of political actors. Yet, a systematic attempt at a validation of Twitter as an indicator for political support is lacking. In this article, building on social science methodology, we test the validity of the relationship between various Twitter-based metrics of public attention toward politics with election results and opinion polls. All indicators tested in this article suggest caution in the attempt to infer public opinion or predict election results based on Twitter messages. In all tested metrics, indicators based on Twitter mentions of political parties differed strongly from parties’ results in elections or opinion polls. This leads us to question the power of Twitter to infer levels of political support of political actors. Instead, Twitter appears to promise insights into temporal dynamics of public attention toward politics.
Data and information quality (DIQ) have been defined traditionally in an organizational context and with respect to traditional information systems (IS) as, for example, “fitness for use” of data or “intrinsic” DIQ. Numerous frameworks have been developed that operationalize traditional DIQ accordingly. However, over the last decade, social IS such as social media have emerged that enable social interaction and open collaboration of voluntary prosumers, rather than simply supporting specific tasks as do traditional IS in organizations. After reviewing the current definitions of DIQ, we conclude that these definitions do not capture DIQ in social IS well, nor how it is defined, maintained, and improved through social interaction. Hence, we propose a new definition of DIQ in social IS based on the notion of "matching" between dynamic, voluntary, and heterogeneous supply and demand of data/information. We illustrate our definition with an ontological framework and discuss its implications.
In this book, I study how and with what consequences the creation of sanctions committees within Security Council sanctions regimes affects the Council’s dominant logic of decision-making and the content of decisions taken. Security Council sanctions regimes increasingly involve complex governance projects that require the adoption of numerous detailed implementation decisions over extended periods of time. The Security Council increasingly delegates these decisions to its sanctions committees with identical membership. In a first step, I develop a theoretical model of committee governance. I argue that the establishment of sanctions committees creates a two-stage decision process which affects collective decision processes in ways that favor rule-based decisions even though the same group of actors adopts all relevant decisions. This effect occurs if a group of actors separates a comprehensive decision-process into a stage of rule-making and a stage of subsequently applying these rules to a stream of implementation decisions. While rulemaking actors are subject to constraints of consistency, in rule-application, actors face coordination situations that create the demand for externally provided rules or internally produced precedents as focal points. Subsequently, based on previously neglected documents, I analyze the effects of committee governance for five Security Council sanctions regimes (Iraq, Al-Qaida, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan and Iran). I conclude that delegating implementation decisions to sanctions committees may commit even the most powerful member states to rule-based decision-making.
Agro-pastoral activities in the past act as environmental legacy and have shaped the current cultural landscape in the European Alps. This study reports about prehistoric fire incidents and their impact on the flora and vegetation near the village of Ardez in the Lower Engadine Valley (Switzerland) since the Late Neolithic Period. Pollen, charcoal particles and non-pollen palynomorphs preserved in the Saglias and Cutüra peat bog stratigraphies were quantified and the results compared with the regional archaeological evidence. Anthropogenic deforestation using fire started around 4850 cal. BP at Saglias and aimed at establishing first cultivated crop fields (e.g. cereals) and small pastoral areas as implied by the positive correlation coefficients between charcoal particles and cultural and pastoral pollen indicators, as well as spores of coprophilous fungi. Pressure on the natural environment by humans and livestock continued until 3650 cal. BP and was followed by reforestation processes until 3400 cal. BP because of climatic deterioration. Thereafter, a new, continuous cultivation/pastoral phase was recorded for the Middle to Late Bronze Age (3400–2800 cal. BP). After rather minor human impact during the Iron Age and Roman Period, intensive agriculture was recorded for the Medieval Period. The area around Ardez was used for crop cultivation from about 1000 cal. BP until the start of the ‘Little Ice Age’ (600 cal. BP). Despite a land-use reorganisation, the following gradual decrease in agricultural activities led to the extant mixture of a cultivated, grazed and forested landscape in the Lower Engadine. In addition, this study demonstrates the excellent value of the fungus Gelasinospora as a highly local marker of past and today’s fire incidents, as well as of the use of micro-charcoals from pollen slides and macrocharcoals (>150 μm) from pollen sample residues for the reconstruction of short- and long-term fire histories.