Students' reading preferences develop in social contexts, and parents shape such environments. Assuming a process of transmission across generations, we analyzed the role of mothers' attitudes toward reading and reading behavior. A sample of 380 ninth-grade students completed a questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward reading (with respect to utility and enjoyment) and to collect details about their extracurricular reading behavior.
Mothers were interviewed and asked to provide comparable information about their own reading behavior and attitudes. Results showed substantial positive relations between mothers' and students' attitudes toward reading and reading behavior, although the effects were small in magnitude. Taken together, evenwhen children reach adolescence, socialization effects from parents can be found in the domain of reading.
Aims: Developing and evaluating an email-based intervention (EBI) to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Over four weeks, participating parents received a weekly email containing scientific findings, practical advice and exercises in relation to such topics as alcohol-related rule-setting and communication. Using a randomised controlled trial (ID: DRKS00007763), data from 467 parents and 173 adolescents were collected via self-report online questionnaires and analysed by means of repeated measures analysis of variance. Findings: Controlling for baseline, parents in the intervention group (IG) scored higher for being informed (parents of girls: F = 19.023, p = 0.000; parents of boys: F = 30.294, p = 0.000) and for self-efficacy (parents of girls: F = 6.122, p = 0.014; parents of boys: F = 10.195, p = 0.002) at follow-up and, in the case of boys, were more successful in maintaining strict rules on alcohol consumption (F = 13.704, p = 0.000) than parents in the control group (CG) (girls: F = 1.627; p = 0.204). Boys whose parents were in the IG reported less heavy episodic drinking at follow-up (F = 4.192, p = 0.043), controlled for baseline, than those with parents in the CG (girls: F = 0.567; p = 0.454). Conclusions: The EBI has positive effects on alcohol-related parenting and may reduce heavy episodic drinking among boys. Since it is delivered via email, the programme has considerable potential to reach many parents at low cost.
The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).