Bargaining is a ubiquitous feature of social and economic interactions.
The book pursues two main goals. From a methodological point of view, game theoretic models and agent-based models are comparatively analysed. This provides an insightful case study about the vices and virtues of both methods with regards to the trade-off between analytic rigour and descriptive detail. From a practical point of view, valuable insights can be drawn about different strategies’ success, fairness and efficiency. It is shown how those properties change with environmental circumstances.
DARIAH (Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities) is part of the European Strategy on Research Infrastructures. Among 38 projects originally on this roadmap, DARIAH is one of two projects addressing social sciences and humanities. According to its self-conception and its political mandate DARIAH has the mission to enhance and support digitally-enabled research across the humanities and arts. DARIAH aims to develop and maintain an infrastructure in support of ICT-based research practices. One main distinguishing aspect of DARIAH is that it is not focusing on one application domain but especially addresses the support of interdisciplinary research in the humanities and arts. The present paper first gives an overview on DARIAH as a whole and then focuses on the important aspect of technical, syntactic and semantic interoperability. Important aspects in this respect are metadata registries and crosswalk definitions allowing for meaningful cross-collection and inter-collection services and analysis.
Background and aims: Hypoglycaemia is an important concern for patients with diabetes and physicians when setting glycaemic targets. The Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study, the largest and most comprehensive of its kind, assessed self-reported hypoglycaemia and associated predictive factors in a global population of patients with insulin-treated diabetes.
Materials and methods: HAT was a non-interventional, multicentre, 6-month retrospective and 1-month prospective study of hypoglycaemic events in 24 countries using self-assessment questionnaires and patient diaries (for 28 days) in people aged ≥18 years with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 (T2D) diabetes using insulin for ≥12 months attending routine clinics. Associations between predictive factors and hypoglycaemia were examined using negative binomial regression models adjusted for period and country.
Results: 27,585 patients completed the study (Table 1). 83.4% of patients with T1D and 50.8% of patients with T2D experienced ≥1 hypoglycaemic event in the 4 weeks before baseline (51.5 and 16.5 events per patient year). Higher (p < 0.001) incidence rates were reported in the 4 weeks after baseline (73.3 [T1D] and 19.3 [T2D] events per patient year). A greater percentage of patients with T1D vs. T2D reported any (83.0 vs. 46.5%), nocturnal (40.6 vs. 15.9%) or severe (14.4 vs. 8.9) hypoglycaemia in the prospective period.
Conclusion: In this large, multinational population of patients (insulin-treated) with T1D or T2D, rates of overall, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia were higher than previously published. An increased incidence of overall hypoglycaemia in the prospective study indicated significant under-reporting of hypoglycaemia.
There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey 'Panel Study 'Labour Market and Social Security'' (PASS), where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.
Panel surveys suffer from attrition. Most panel studies use propensity models or weighting class approaches to correct for non-random dropout. These models draw on variables measured in a previous wave or from paradata of the study. While it is plausible that they affect contactability and cooperativeness, panel studies usually cannot assess the impact of events between waves on attrition. The amount of change in the population could be seriously underestimated if such events had an effect on participation in subsequent waves. The panel study PASS is a novel dataset for labour market and poverty research. In PASS, survey data on (un)employment histories, income and education of participants are linked to corresponding data from respondents' administrative records. Thus, change can be observed for attritors as well as for continued participants. These data are used to show that change in household composition, employment status or receipt of benefits has an influence on contact and cooperation rates in the following wave. A large part of the effect is due to lower contactability of households who moved. Nevertheless, this effect can lead to biased estimates for the amount of change. After applying the survey's longitudinal weights this bias is reduced, but not entirely eliminated.
Depressive symptoms in diabetes are associated with reduced self-care,
glycaemic control and health-related quality of life (hrQOL) and increased
diabetes-specifi c distress. We analysed if the recovery from depressive
symptoms would be associated with improvements in these aspects. 182
diabetes patients (age 46 ± 13 y.; 56% female; BMI 30 ± 7; 62% type 1
diabetes; illness duration 15 ± 10 y.; 95% with insulin; HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.7%)
with subclinical depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16 without meeting
criteria for clinical depression; mean CES-D score: 23 ± 8) participated in a
prospective study. Recovery was defi ned as CES-D score < 16 at 12-month
follow up. Dependent variables were diabetes self-care (SDSCA), glycaemic
control (HbA1c), diabetes distress (PAID) and hrQOL (SF-36). We
compared baseline-to-follow up changes between recovered versus nonrecovered
patients using ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline values). At follow
up, 85 patients (47%) showed recovery. The mean reduction of depressive
symptoms in this group was -13 ± 9 CES-D scale points; the mean change in
the 97 patients remaining depressed (53%) was +2 ± 9 CES-D scale points.
Recovered patients compared to unrecovered ones showed signifi cantly
greater improvement (baseline-to-follow up change) regarding self-care
(+0.14 ± 1.11 vs. -0.19 ± 1.05 SDSCA scale points, Δ = 0.31, P = 0.014), glycaemic
control (-0.78 ± 2.19 vs. -0.56 ± 1.53 HbA1c %-points, Δ = 0.12, P =
0.042), diabetes distress (-13.6 ± 18.8 vs. -4.4 ± 17.1 PAID scale points, Δ =
0.51, P < 0.01) and hrQOL (physical hrQOL: +2.0 ± 8.7 vs. -1.1 ± 9.6 T scores,
Δ = 0.341, P = 0.005; mental hrQOL: +14.5 ± 11.9 vs. +0.1 ± 12.2 T scores, Δ =
1.19, P < 0.01). This study provides evidence that recovery from depressive
symptoms may have positive impact on diabetes control, diabetes-specifi c
distress and quality of life.
Questionnaires assessing the satisfaction of patients already exist, but no
questionnaire assesses the satisfaction of physicians. However, physicians’
satisfaction with patient-communication and with diabetes therapy is a crucial
factor for the effi cacy of diabetes therapy. A relevant part of patientcommunication
is the discussion of blood glucose values with the patient. In
order to systematically assess the perspective of physicians, we developed
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Behavioral Medicine, Clinical
Nutrition, Education, and Exercise
PSYCHOSOCIAL, BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
a questionnaire that assesses satisfaction of physicians with diabetes therapy
in general (Sat-DT) and with the discussion of blood glucose values (SatBG)
in particular. Data from 188 physicians who completed the questionnaire
was analyzed. The fi nal Sat-DT scale comprised 13 items and achieved a
Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.93 wit a mean item-total correlation of r=0.71. The
fi nal Sat-BG scale comprised 10 items and achieved a Cronbach’s Alpha of
0.92 with a mean item-total correlation of r=0.73. Factor analysis (Varimax
rotation) revealed two factors within the Sat-DT scale (65% explained variance):
“Effects of diabetes therapy” and “costs and benefi ts.” The Sat-BG
scale could be divided into “Usage of blood glucose data” and “effi cacy of
the discussion” by factor analysis (76% explained variance). A greater satisfaction
in both scales was associated with a greater satisfaction with the
work as a physician (Sat-DT: r=0.2, p<.05; Sat-BG: r=0.32, p<.05), a greater
satisfaction with therapy outcomes (Sat-DT: r=0.34, p<.05; Sat-BG: r=0.3,
p<.05), and with a greater satisfaction with the results of working as a physician
(Sat-DT: r=0.27, p<.05; Sat-BG: r=0.25, p<.05). This new questionnaire
with its two scales is a reliable and valid assessment tool to measure the
satisfaction of physicians. In future studies, this questionnaire can be used
to investigate the infl uence of physicians’ satisfaction on diabetes therapy
as well as how physicians’ satisfaction can be altered.