This study compared the long-term efficacy of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral
group therapy (CBT) with sertraline in patients with diabetes and depression
who initially responded to short-term depression treatment.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A randomized controlled single-blind trial was conducted in 70 secondary care
centers across Germany comparing 12 weeks of CBT with sertraline in 251 patients
with type 1 or 2 diabetes (mean HbA1c 9.3%, 78 mmol/mol) and major depression
(Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]). After 12 weeks, treatment responders
(‡50% reduction Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD-17]) were
included in the 1-year study phase where CBT patients were encouraged to use
bibliotherapy and sertraline patients received continuous treatment. We analyzed
differences for HbA1c (primary outcome) and reduction (HAMD-17) or remission
(SCID) of depression from baseline to the 1-year follow-up using ANCOVA
or logistic regression analysis.
After 12 weeks, 45.8% of patients responded to antidepressant treatment and
were included in the 1-year study phase. Adjusted HbA1c mean score changes from
baseline to the end of the long-term phase (20.27, 95% CI 20.62 to 0.08) revealed
no significant difference between interventions. Depression improved in both
groups, with a significant advantage for sertraline (HAMD-17 change: 22.59,
95% CI 1.15–4.04, P < 0.05).
Depression improved under CBT and sertraline in patients with diabetes and depression,
with a significant advantage for sertraline, but glycemic control
remained unchanged. CBT and sertraline as single treatment are insufficient to treat secondary care diabetes patients with depression and poor glycemic control.
This paper presents an experimental study investigating the interplay of individuals’ other-regarding preferences and individuals’ risk attitude. Participants (N = 120) had to make choices between a certain and risky payoff only for themselves (individual context) and choices in which the participants were paired with another randomly assigned participant who functioned as a passive recipient (interpersonal context). In the interpersonal context the risky option was beneficial for the other person while the certain option was not. Thus, the interpersonal choice context was an abstract representation of the incentive structure in helping situations, which yield risk only for the helper. Risky options in the interpersonal context yielded different payoff distributions, which allowed us to identify how considerations of fairness affect interpersonal risky choices. To assess other-regarding preferences, a dictator game was played. First we found that participants were generally less risk averse in the interpersonal choices; however, the degree of risk aversion was affected by the distribution of payoffs between decider and recipient. Furthermore, we found that changes of risk aversion in an interpersonal context could be predicted with the proposed splits in the dictator game.
Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by – more or less qualified – advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants.
Psychometric theory relies on two basic assumptions: (a) psychological constructs
refer to latent (unobservable) variables and (b) psychological tests serve as a way to
measure these constructs. This view is complemented by an alternative interpretation of
psychological constructs, which neither relies on latent variables nor on the concept of
measurement. Using the formal apparatus of many-valued logic, psychological constructs
are re-interpreted as linguistic concepts (rather than latent variables), which can be inferred
by means of logical calculus (as opposed to measurement). Thus, test scores do not refer to
the values of latent variables, but to the degree to which the necessary and sufficient
conditions for the ascription of a construct are fulfilled. Following this rationale, a formal
theory of psychological tests is developed, which models the process of testing as logical
inference. Applying the derived procedures, a person’s testing behaviour yields the degree
to which a construct describes her adequately.
"Starting Cohort 6-Adults is one of six samples of the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) and covers members of the adult population living in Germany from multiple birth cohorts. It aims at collecting data on educational processes and competence development in adult life as well as on learning environments, decision processes, and returns. To achieve these objectives, it is necessary to gather life-course information, particularly in the area of education and employment. In this chapter, we describe our core questionnaire design and justify why we collect life-course data the way we do. We begin by presenting theoretical principles of life course research and discussing their consequences for questionnaire design. Subsequently, we describe how the process of recalling events and their dating is supported by instrument design in order to guarantee that retrospective life course data will be complete and consistent. Finally, we illustrate the analysis potential of the collected life course data." (Author's abstract)