Interface theories allow systems designers to reason about the composability and compatibility of concurrent system components. Such theories often extend both de Alfaro and Henzinger’s Interface Automata and Larsen’s Modal Transition Systems, which leads, however, to several issues that are undesirable in practice: an unintuitive treatment of specified unwanted behaviour, a binary compatibility concept that does not scale to multi-component assemblies, and compatibility guarantees that are insufficient for software product lines.
In this paper we show that communication mismatches are central to all these problems and, thus, the ability to represent such errors semantically is an important feature of an interface theory. Accordingly, we present the error-aware interface theory EMIA, where the above shortcomings are remedied by introducing explicit fatal error states. In addition, we prove via a Galois insertion that EMIA is a conservative generalisation of the established MIA (Modal Interface Automata) theory.
In 2007, OASIS finalized their Business Process Execution Language 2.0 (BPEL) specification which defines an XML-based language for orchestrations of Web Services. As the validation of BPEL processes against the official BPEL XML schema leaves room for a plethora of static errors, the specification contains 94 static analysis rules to cover all static errors. According to the specification, any violations of these rules are to be checked by a standard conformant engine at deployment time. When a violation is not detected in BPEL processes during deployment, such errors are only detectable at runtime, making them expensive to find and fix.
Due to the large amount of rules, we have created a tag system to categorize them, allowing easier reasoning about these rules.
Next, we formalized the static rules and derived test cases based on these formalizations with the aim to evaluate the degree of support for static analysis of BPEL engines.
Hence, this work is the foundation of the static analysis capabilities of BPEL engines.
Previous research demonstrated that the exposure to media portrayals of the thin body ideal negatively affects body satisfaction and mood of healthy women and thus represents a sociocultural risk factor for the development of eating disorders. However, at present, it is not known whether negative effects of the thin ideal are pronounced in eating-disordered patients.
Female inpatients with a current diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (N = 36), bulimia nervosa (N = 32), or mood or anxiety disorder (N = 31), and women with no current psychiatric diagnosis were randomly assigned to exposure to magazine pictures depicting the thin female body ideal or landscape scenes in two experimental phases (leafing through a magazine followed by instructed imagination of a picture from the magazine). The groups were compared on measures of body satisfaction and mood that were collected before and after the two phases.
Leafing through a fashion magazine was not associated with negative effects on body satisfaction or mood in all groups. Imagining the thin ideal resulted in a decrease in body satisfaction and a decrease in positive mood. We found no diagnosis-specific effects indicating no stronger negative impact of the thin ideal on eating-disorder patients.
Given the lacking differences between eating-disordered patients and controls, these findings underline the importance of future research to enhance our understanding of what happens when patients are exposed to external or internal stimuli of media images of the thin ideal.
The aim of this paper is the identification of a superordinate research framework for describing emerging ITinfrastructures within manufacturing, logistics and Supply Chain Management. This is in line with the thoughts and concepts of the Internet of Things (IoT), as well as with accompanying developments, namely the Internet of Services (IoS), Mobile Computing (MC), Big Data Analytics (BD) and Digital Social Networks (DSN). Furthermore, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and their enabling technologies as a fundamental component of all these research streams receive particular attention. Besides of the development of an eponymous research framework, relevant applications against the background of the technological trends as well as potential areas of interest for future research, both raised from the economic practice’s perspective, are identified.
Purpose - The emerging technology of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) promises new problem solutions in manufacturing, logistics and SCM. In order to enable a structured scientific discussion, a general definition of such systems is needed.
Design/methodology/approach - To deliver such a definition, scientific articles on the relatively young research field of CPS have been identified and analyzed. Methods like literature review and matrix analysis have been applied during research work.
Findings - On an abstract level, seven basic functions of CPS have been identified. Besides these functions, several phenomenological characteristics emerged as well. Combining the functional and the phenomenological view, a generally applicable definition has been constructed. Some first application examples from logistics, manufacturing and general Supply Chain Management illustrate the definition.
Research limitations/implications - The paper aggregates findings from different research streams. They are application and technology agnostic. It would, in a next step, thus be necessary to identify the specific technologies behind those functions, to describe the state of the art from an application perspective, and to develop a framework for future research.
Practical implications - Considering the great potential of CPS within an operational context, this paper aggregates definitional aspects from a consistent scientific perspective. The processing of the literature on hand addresses a tangible demand for economic practice, which seems to be overwhelmed by the sheer amount of different terms and definitions.
Original/value - The presented study provides strong insights into the emerging subject of CPS gearing towards a prospective research-focus on operational aspects.