Sanktionen in der Grundsicherung des SGB II bedeuten für Sanktionierte zeitlich befristet ein Leben unter dem soziokulturellen Existenzminimum. Personen ohne oder mit niedrigem Schulabschluss tragen ein höheres Sanktionsrisiko. Quantitative Analysen von kombinierten Prozess- und Befragungsdaten legen nahe, dass dies nicht auf niedrigere Arbeitsmotivation oder Konzessionsbereitschaft zurückzuführen ist. Analysen von qualitativen Interviews und Fallakten deuten auf komplexe Hintergründe hin. Geringes verwaltungsbezogenes kulturelles Kapital, habituelle Ferne zu Fachkräften in Jobcentern sowie negative Zuschreibungen in Fallakten können die Sanktionierung niedrigqualifizierter Wohlfahrtsempfänger befördern. Sanktionen tragen so insgesamt zur (Re-)Produktion sozialer Ungleichheit nach Bildung bei.
Panel surveys suffer from attrition. Most panel studies use propensity models or weighting class approaches to correct for non-random dropout. These models draw on variables measured in a previous wave or from paradata of the study. While it is plausible that they affect contactability and cooperativeness, panel studies usually cannot assess the impact of events between waves on attrition. The amount of change in the population could be seriously underestimated if such events had an effect on participation in subsequent waves. The panel study PASS is a novel dataset for labour market and poverty research. In PASS, survey data on (un)employment histories, income and education of participants are linked to corresponding data from respondents' administrative records. Thus, change can be observed for attritors as well as for continued participants. These data are used to show that change in household composition, employment status or receipt of benefits has an influence on contact and cooperation rates in the following wave. A large part of the effect is due to lower contactability of households who moved. Nevertheless, this effect can lead to biased estimates for the amount of change. After applying the survey's longitudinal weights this bias is reduced, but not entirely eliminated.
Survey methodologists worry about trade-offs between nonresponse and measurement error. Past findings indicate that respondents brought into the survey late provide low-quality data. The diminished data quality is often attributed to lack of motivation. Quality is often measured through internal indicators and rarely through true scores. Using administrative data for validation purposes, this article documents increased measurement error as a function of recruitment effort for a large-scale employment survey in Germany. In this case study, the reduction in measurement quality of an important target variable is largely caused by differential measurement error in subpopulations and respective shifts in sample composition, as well as increased cognitive burden through the increased length of recall periods among later respondents. Only small portions of the relationship could be attributed to a lack of motivation among late or reluctant respondents.
Few topics in psychology have generated as much controversy as sex differences in intelligence. For fluid intelligence, researchers emphasize the high overlap between the ability distributions of males and females, whereas research on sex differences in declarative knowledge often uncovers a male advantage. However, on the level of knowledge domains, a more nuanced picture emerged: while females perform better in health-related topics (e.g., aging, medicine), males outperform females in domains of natural sciences (e.g., engineering, physics). In this paper we show that sex differences vary substantially depending on item sampling. Analyses were based on a sample of n = 3306 German high-school students (Grades 9 and 10) who worked on the 64 declarative knowledge items of the Berlin Test of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence (BEFKI) assessing knowledge within three broad content domains (science, humanities, social studies). Using two strategies of item sampling—stepwise confirmatory factor analysis and ant colony optimization algorithm—we deliberately manipulate sex differences in multi-group structural equation models. Results show that sex differences considerably vary depending on the indicators drawn from the item pool. Furthermore, ant colony optimization outperforms the simple stepwise selection strategy since it can optimize several criteria simultaneously (model fit, reliability, and preset sex differences). Taken together, studies reporting sex differences in declarative knowledge fail to acknowledge item sampling issues. On a more general stance, handling item sampling hinges on profound considerations
of the content of measures.