The beginnings of the continuous human presence and of pastoral activities in the high mountainous region of Central Europe have recently become a frequently discussed topic in both archaeology and palaeoecology. In extreme environments such as the high Alpine main ridge and adjacent areas, highly adaptive subsistence strategies were required to exploit natural resources available in the subalpine and alpine zones. Such strategies were determined by changing environmental, social, and economic conditions.
To investigate the relationships between settlement dynamics, human impact, and Holocene climatic changes, we studied the valleys of the Silvretta Massif in the central Eastern Alps between the Paznaun (Austria) and Lower Engadine valleys (Switzerland). We are presenting new archaeological, palaeoecological, and pedological evidence of continuous human activities from the Early Neolithic Period to the Bronze Age (~ 5,500–800 BC). This evidence sheds new light on the beginnings of intensifi ed human impact on the high mountainous landscape, i.e. activities beyond Mesolithic hunting along the timberline. Archaeological data suggest a shift in subsistence strategies from hunting to herding at the end of the Neolithic Period (~2,800–2,500 BC). While palaeoecological data confirm this trend, they also indicate potentially earlier human and livestock impact through forest clearances by fire and grazing from about 4,200 BC onwards. In addition to archaeological sites and peat bogs, soils in high-altitude regions prove to be appropriate archives indicating former vegetation cover, shifts of timberline altitudes as well as disturbance of soil formation by human activity such as by slash-and-burn and by livestock grazing.
Including students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) is a challenge for largescale assessments. In order to draw inferences with respect to students with SEN-L and to compare their scores to students in general education, one needs to assure that the
measurement model is reliable and that the same construct is measured for different samples and test forms. In this article, we focus on testing the appropriateness of competence assessments for students with SEN-L. We specifically asked how the reading competence of
students with SEN-L may be assessed reliably and comparably. We thoroughly evaluated
different testing accommodations for students with SEN-L. The reading competence of N = 433
students with SEN-L was assessed using a standard reading test, a reduced test version, and an easy test version. Also, N = 5,208 general education students and a group of N = 490 lowperforming students were tested. Results show that all three reading test versions are suitable for a reliable and comparable measurement of reading competence in students without SEN-L.
For students with SEN-L, the accommodated test versions considerably reduced the amount of missing values and resulted in better psychometric properties than the standard test. They did not, however, show satisfactory item fit and measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.
A time-consuming part of the organization of empirical field research is the arrangement of appointments with individual participants. Often times part of the sample is hard to reach via phone. An online appointment system to facilitate the coordination of the annual family visits was tested within the scope of a German educational panel study in 2012. The participants had the opportunity to arrange their appointment online in accordance with their own scheduling needs. Roughly one quarter (n = 63) of our sample of 242 families, who had thus far been used to arranging their appointments by phone, chose the online appointment system instead. To evaluate its usability for field research and the strength of possible sample bias, the participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire as well. We can show that personal attitudes are more significant in explaining a choice in favor of the e-appointment system than socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, the e-appointment system does not increase sample selectivity bias in our survey, so that particularly for bigger samples, it is as capable as phone based arrangement systems in getting a hold of people who are hard to reach and retaining the same high process quality, while reducing the researcher’s expenditure of time and money.
Dieser Artikel betrachtet die messinvariante Erfassung bildungsrelevanter Konstrukte mit Hilfe schriftlicher Befragungen bei Schülerinnen und Schülern an Förderschulen und Hauptschulen in der 5. Jahrgangsstufe. Um optimale Administrationsbedingungen für Schülerinnen und Schüler mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf Lernen zu erforschen, wurde ein experimentelles Design implementiert. Inwieweit angepasste Erhebungsinstrumente und unterschiedliche Beschulungsformen sowie anzunehmende Kompetenzunterschiede der Befragten eine messäquivalente Erfassung der Lesemotivation und des akademischen Selbstkonzeptes ermöglichen, wird durch Mehrgruppenvergleiche konfirmatorischer Faktorenanalysen untersucht. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass vergleichende Analysen zwischen Schülergruppen an Förderschulen und Hauptschulen für bestimmte Konstrukte und Faktoren sinnvoll interpretierbar sind.
This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the regulation of the group process is important. This regulation might occur on both an individual level and a social level. Several modes of regulation have been identified, but the terms used for them vary tremendously—including social regulation, socially shared regulation, coregulation, and other-regulation. This article seeks to clarify the diverse terminology. To this end, we use a theoretical framework based on Winne and Hadwin's (1998) model of self-regulated learning to analyze how the different terms are used in the literature. We make and exemplify suggestions for a consistent usage of terms.
Ernie und Bert, Kermit und Miss Piggy - die Helden aus Sesamstraße und Muppet Show kennt jeder. Auch der Name ihres Erfinders Jim Henson ist bekannt. Nur wenige wissen wohl, dass der am 16. Mai 1990 Gestorbene nicht nur Kinderfernsehen gemacht hat.