Hierarchical data structures in variationist linguistics are given when, for
example, each of a number of speakers makes several utterances of interest
and individual observations are therefore not independent. Structures of this
kind are often not fully reflected in the analytic tools used to model language
variation. Against this background, the paper investigates the presence or
absence of coda-/r/ in a hierarchically structured dataset produced by 27
middle-class speakers of Scottish Standard English (SSE). Two regressionbased
statistical techniques are compared: multiple logistic regression and a
hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM). The latter emerges as a
model that is not only more correct in theoretical terms because it takes the
nested structure of the data into account, but also detects cross-level effects
that go unnoticed in multiple logistic regression. The most striking finding
is, for example, that in prepausal position coda-/r/ is less likely to be deleted,
an effect, however, that is not general but depends critically upon the age of
the speaker and the dialect contact to which he or she has been exposed. The
paper thus provides one example of the potential of HGLM to explain
complex patterns of variation in hierarchically structured data.
In this paper a partly novel combination of auditory transformation and vowel-extrinsic normalization is applied to acoustic vowel data from six Edinburgh middle-class speakers. It is shown that the vowel plots thus produced correspond rather well to articulatory and impressionistic descriptions found in the literature. Furthermore, the relatively small variability found between the speakers in a number of vowel features suggests that a typical middle-class Edinburgh vowel space does exist. However, it is also shown that in acoustic terms this vowel space is organised even less symmetrically than is generally assumed.
International immigration affects the degree of cultural diversity present in a labour force. This paper focuses on the consequences of immigration with respect to the level of cultural diversity by estimating employment functions for individual establishments. The theory behind the empirical analyses is based on a ìturned aroundî New Economic Geography model. The data basis used is a linked employer ñ employee data set generated by a fusion of the IAB Establishment Panel with the Employment Statistics of Germany, which provides very detailed information about individual workers and establishments. In the empirical analyses it is shown that employment is lower when the degree of diversity is higher, regarding the revenue of an individual establishment as given. From this result it can be derived under the conditions of monopolistic competition (implying elastic product demand) that the establishment is able to occupy a relatively large part of the market. Finally this implies relatively high labour demand.