The maturity level of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has grown constantly and the market offers first components and products. Nevertheless the commercial breakthrough in industries has not yet happened due to the lack of economically justifiable applications. This paper presents the management of assets as one promising field of application for WSN. In particular we show how the existing asset management process for mobile measurement devices at Fraunhofer IIS is optimized with a WSN-based asset management system.
Abstract Diverse identification and positioning technologies like radio-frequency identification (RFID), real-time locating systems (RTLS), and wireless sensor net- works (WSN) are among the enablers for the Internet of Things (IoT). Although the cost-effective integration of these enabling technologies into existing enterprise infrastructures is very important for companies, integration aspects are ignored by researches frequently. Even worse, the increasing diversity of identification and po- sitioning technologies and corresponding applications leads to more expensive in- tegration and application development processes. Up to now these technologies are used rather separately in different applications, but it is only a question of time before these technologies have to be used within the same application in parallel. Furthermore it could be observed, that existing commercial middleware products aiming at integration are focusing on passive RFID only. Hence there is a need to functionally extend existing solutions. This contribution introduces an integration and application platform for diverse enabling technologies for the Internet of Things that has been derived from the requirements of real world applications. An overview on applications of the Internet of Things is given and a selection of applications that have been successfully implemented in research and development projects is exam- ined in detail. The functionalities provided by the platform and the corresponding abstract software architecture are derived from these applications.
The Internet of Things (loT) envisages a dynamic network of networks where everyday objects can interact with each other, sense the environment and potentially act on it. Although this seems to be a simple concept, the structural and technical challenges that arise are manifold. This paper gives an overview of some of these challenges and presents the related emerging technologies and research trends.
Although the cost-effective integration of diverse smart object technologies like radio-frequency identification (RFID), real-time locating systems (RTLS), and wireless sensor networks (WSN) into existing enterprise infrastructures is very important for companies, integration aspects are ignored by researches frequently. Furthermore it could be observed, that existing commercial middleware products aiming at integration ignore the trend of consolidation between diverse smart object technologies by focusing on passive RFID only. This paper introduces the concept of an integration platform for diverse smart object technologies together with an abstract software architecture. The functionalities that such a platform should provide are derived from the requirements of real world applications and aim at drastically reduced integration costs.
Hierarchical data structures in variationist linguistics are given when, for
example, each of a number of speakers makes several utterances of interest
and individual observations are therefore not independent. Structures of this
kind are often not fully reflected in the analytic tools used to model language
variation. Against this background, the paper investigates the presence or
absence of coda-/r/ in a hierarchically structured dataset produced by 27
middle-class speakers of Scottish Standard English (SSE). Two regressionbased
statistical techniques are compared: multiple logistic regression and a
hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM). The latter emerges as a
model that is not only more correct in theoretical terms because it takes the
nested structure of the data into account, but also detects cross-level effects
that go unnoticed in multiple logistic regression. The most striking finding
is, for example, that in prepausal position coda-/r/ is less likely to be deleted,
an effect, however, that is not general but depends critically upon the age of
the speaker and the dialect contact to which he or she has been exposed. The
paper thus provides one example of the potential of HGLM to explain
complex patterns of variation in hierarchically structured data.
In this paper a partly novel combination of auditory transformation and vowel-extrinsic normalization is applied to acoustic vowel data from six Edinburgh middle-class speakers. It is shown that the vowel plots thus produced correspond rather well to articulatory and impressionistic descriptions found in the literature. Furthermore, the relatively small variability found between the speakers in a number of vowel features suggests that a typical middle-class Edinburgh vowel space does exist. However, it is also shown that in acoustic terms this vowel space is organised even less symmetrically than is generally assumed.
International immigration affects the degree of cultural diversity present in a labour force. This paper focuses on the consequences of immigration with respect to the level of cultural diversity by estimating employment functions for individual establishments. The theory behind the empirical analyses is based on a ìturned aroundî New Economic Geography model. The data basis used is a linked employer ñ employee data set generated by a fusion of the IAB Establishment Panel with the Employment Statistics of Germany, which provides very detailed information about individual workers and establishments. In the empirical analyses it is shown that employment is lower when the degree of diversity is higher, regarding the revenue of an individual establishment as given. From this result it can be derived under the conditions of monopolistic competition (implying elastic product demand) that the establishment is able to occupy a relatively large part of the market. Finally this implies relatively high labour demand.