As part of a long-term project to investigate the cultural history of the Nasca region in southern Peru, the famous
Nasca lines, or geoglyphs, have been documented since 1997 in a joint effort by archaeologists and geomatic engineers. The
project aims on the one hand at a new interpretation of the geoglyphs based on solid field data. On the other hand, it is thought
of as a contribution to the preservation of the geoglyphs. Prior to the start of the project, the geoglyphs had never been
adequately recorded. In a new approach that combined aerial photogrammetry with archaeological fieldwork, we thoroughly
documented more than 1 500 geoglyphs in the vicinity of Palpa. While different aspects of this work have been described in
previous reports, this paper offers an overview of the technical procedures from data acquisition to processing, modeling, and
The goal of this paper is to examine regularities and differences in the application of the three terms assigned expatriate (AE), self-initiated expatriate (SIE) and migrant as the criteria for demarcation are unclear (Al Ariss, 2010; Baruch, Dickmann, Altman, &Bournois, 2010). This research adopts a qualitative approach, using the tool of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). The data base includes 244 definitions from 10 sociological, psychological and business journals. Results indicate that migrant is the umbrella term for AE and SIE. Therefore a SIE is a migrant who executes his dependent work abroad. In contrast to AEs, decision of employment is made by the host country organization and the first formalized action (i. e. job application) is undertaken by the individual.
Evidence on age-related differentiation in the structure of cognitive abilities in childhood and adolescence is still inconclusive. Previous studies often focused on the interrelations or the g-saturation of broad ability constructs, neglecting abilities on lower strata. In contrast, we investigated differentiation in the internal structure of fluid intelligence/gf (with verbal, numeric, and figural reasoning) and crystallized intelligence/gc (with knowledge in the natural sciences, humanities, and social studies). To better understand the development of reasoning and knowledge during secondary education, we analyzed data from 11,756 students attending Grades 5 to 12. Changes in both the mean structure and the covariance structure were estimated with locally-weighted structural equation models that allow handling age as a continuous context variable. To substantiate a potential influence of school tracking (i.e., different learning environments), analyses were additionally conducted separated by school track (academic vs. nonacademic). Mean changes in gf and gc were approximately linear in the total sample, with a steeper slope for the latter. There was little indication of age-related differentiation for the different reasoning facets and knowledge domains. The results suggest that the relatively homogeneous scholastic learning environment in secondary education prevents the development of more pronounced ability or knowledge profiles.
This study examines responses of 104 sell-side and buy-side security analysts to a survey sent out in order to understand how analysts conduct investment recommendations. Uncertainty about the quality of analysts’ investment recommendations is a major concern for retail investors. Specifically, the information gathering, processing and transferring process appears to be a black box for retail investors. The findings of our study provide insight into analyst-specific characteristics and sources of information used by analysts to undertake firm-specific research. By examining the practitioners’ responses we derive key factors which influence investment recommendations.
Retail investors use information provided by mutual fund rating agencies to make investment decisions. Using hand-collected data on Morningstar’s mutual fund ratings we examine the rating migration and closure risk of mutual funds from 2005 to 2012. We differentiate between buy-and-hold investment strategies and dynamic investment strategies. To assess the information content of mutual fund ratings for buy-and-hold investment strategies, we determine the rating migration based on the first and the last mutual fund rating during two-, four-, six-, and eight-year horizons. With respect to dynamic investment strategies, we calculate the number of rating changes per fund during these time horizons on a monthly basis. We find that mutual fund rating persistence is low or even inexistent in particular during longer time periods. Only for lower-rated funds the rating appears to indicate higher risk of fund closure. In addition, mutual funds face a large number of up to 38 monthly rating changes in the eight-year window. Overall, due to the extensive rating migration and the high number of monthly rating changes, we conclude that retail investors barely benefit from using mutual fund ratings.
We propose a methodology of an ex ante prediction of users' performance based on analyzing the pupillary diameter variability captured by ordinary eye-tracking systems. Based on a realistic large-scale experimental evaluation of our methodology we show promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to the user's mental effort and the expected user performance. Our non-invasive contact-free methodology can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments, without disturbing the participant/user.
Studies show that social capital facilitates access to internal and external knowledge and in turn increases business value. In that respect, studies show that companies sharing some similarities such as organizational values and practices may benefit more than companies differing in various aspects. In particular, group affiliations have been shown to influence performance in specific contexts but results are mixed at best. In addition, the question of how the influence of social capital on transferring useful external knowledge might be moderated by closer affiliations between companies is virtually not addressed. Employing a survey among manufacturing companies, this paper contributes to extant research by demonstrating a moderating effect of group affiliations on the relationship between social capital and useful external knowledge.
Building on Key’s fundamental distinction and Katz’s and Mair’s modifications to this distinction, this chapter describes and analyzes the interaction of German voters and party elites at three distinct levels: the ‘party-in-the-electorate’, the ‘party-in-the-government’ (Key) or ‘party in public office’ (as Katz and Mair put it), and the party organization outside the legislature, particularly the ‘party on the ground’ (Katz and Mair). Our analysis focuses on individual parties and also covers the party system as ‘the system of interactions resulting from inter-party competition’ (Sartori 1976). We will aim to track important continuities in, and changes to, voting behaviour in respect of the main German parties individually and of the party system as a whole, concentrating on the period since unification in 1990. Drawing on a number of theoretical perspectives, including theories of electoral change, theories of organizational reform in political parties (in response to electoral change), and coalition politics at the governmental level, we will develop our argument as follows: after introducing the main parties and analyzing continuities and change in voting behaviour and party membership, we will analyze how political parties have responded to the growing levels of political uncertainty in organizational terms and will seek to address the seemingly paradoxical question why Germany’s party system has remained relatively stable at the governmental level (the party in public office), while parties in the electorate and parties as organizations have become far more fluid and vulnerable. (On the electoral system in Germany, including proportional representation and the statutory minimum of 5 per cent of the national vote a party must achieve to be represented in the Bundestag.