While numerous studies into phenomena of intergroup conflict, outgroup derogation and similar negative relations between groups exist, there is a noticeable absence in the literature. Safe from some contributions on enemy-images in the late 1980ies, hardly any literature on enemies or enmity as a concept exists. Given Carl Schmitt’s (1932) argument for the distinction between friends and enemies as being particularly important for political thoughts and behaviours, this is somewhat surprising. However, even within neighbouring disciplines, such as philosophy or sociology, a similar lack of debates on enmity can be found. The main goal of this paper is twofold, firstly it will present an overview of the existing literature on enmity (e.g. Holt, 1989; Wiseman & Duck, 1995; Zur, 1991), providing a tentative definition of ‘enemies’ from a psychological perspective and discussing the predominant historical context of psychological studies on ‘enemies’, namely the decline of the Soviet Union as a major ‘global enemy’ to the ‘Western World’. Given there is no similar treatment of contemporary conflicts, e.g. with regards to Political Islam, it will secondly pose the question whether a clearly defined concept of enmity can add to our understanding of conflict beyond existing models of social identity and intergroup hate (e.g. Reicher, Haslam & Rath, 2008) or social cognition and contempt towards the outgroup (e.d. Cuddy, Fiske / Glick, 2008).
The eponymous heroes of "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde", "The Picture of Dorian Gray" and "Dracula" are known to most through the medium of film. These novels were adapted early on in the history of the medium and have been revisited by film makers countless times. This book asks why they had such a lasting resonance in film. It claims that the monsters featured in these novels, which were written at the advent of cinematography, differ from previous Gothic leads: Jekyll/Hyde, Dorian Gray and Dracula were born from a sense of unease with the photographic image at a time when it began to move. They embody fears triggered by new ways of representing – and thus thinking about – the human body. Their exhibitions of deviant corporeality and its effect on others anticipate the representation of the human body in film as well as an audience’s reception of a film.
Through its numerous case studies, this monograph is able to show that film history can be told as a history of the representation of the human body. It features discussions of films as diverse as "Der Januskopf", "Nosferatu", "Vampyr", "Le Testament du Docteur Cordelier", "Altered States", "Dorian Gray im Spiegel der Boulevardpresse" and "Bram Stoker’s Dracula".
In this paper, we argue that beyond understanding nations as imagined communities, the metaphor of an ‘imagined family’ or ‘filial community’ is a more useful concept towards understanding links between gender and nationhood as family relations in four ways: (1) providing a clear, hierarchical structure; (2) prescribing social roles and responsibilities; (3) being linked to positive affective connotations; and (4) reifying social phenomena as biologically determined. In order to empirically substantiate our claim, we will explore the prevalence and use of family metaphors in a key symbol of nationhood discourses. Through a qualitative analysis of national anthems as ‘mnemonics of national identity’, we demonstrate the widespread presence of family metaphors, discussing how they reproduce ideas of family and gender. Finally, we discuss how the ‘imagined family’ as present in anthems and other forms of national representation could inform future studies of nationalism and national politics.
In 1949 the Austrian Communist Party (KPÖ) dedicated a memorial plaque to Stalin in Vienna. It commemorates his visit to the city while he wrote on the National Question in 1913. This plaque remains there until today. Because the memorial has lost its function in the communist cult of personality, this article offers an analysis of present-day memory culture surrounding the plaque in order to understand its current function as place of memory. My point of departure is journalistic texts discussing the Stalin plaque written in Austria in the twenty-first century. These repeat certain topoi and metaphors from transnational fictional and non-fictional works about Stalin's life and about radicals in Vienna in 1913. I discuss the intertextuality of these texts and interpret their function. Although the plaque has its roots in Stalin's personality cult of the 1940s, most recent texts ignore this aspect. Instead, they recreate the episode of Stalin's life the memorial alludes to. The memorial thus functions as a magnifying glass, exposing details about the year 1913 when Stalin visited Vienna. Present-day writing about the Stalin plaque often leads to discussions about who else lived in Vienna that year and about the fatefulness of the year before World War I.