Communication between and within crisis response organizations (i.e., fire and rescue services, medical assistance, government agencies, public organizations, police) and the public (i.e., victims, volunteers, people affected by the attacks) is essential for coping with natural or man-made crises such as Hurri-cane Katrina or the terror attacks of 9/11. Research, however, emphasizes that effective communication is difficult to establish because multiple communication-related barriers arise during crisis management that impede enhanced mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Although research in crisis management and crisis communication gains more and more practical and scientific notice, it still lacks a comprehensive overview. Hence, we conducted a systematic literature review to examine how com-munication between and within crisis response organizations and the public takes place during the mit-igation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases of a crisis. The results show that several techno-logical, organizational, and social barriers hinder communication between all involved. The purpose of this review is to provide a foundation based on the current literature and suggest future research direc-tions to advance knowledge on communication and barriers in communication between and within crisis response organizations and the public during crisis management.
Data and information quality (DIQ) have been defined traditionally in an organizational context and with respect to traditional information systems (IS) as, for example, “fitness for use” of data or “intrinsic” DIQ. Numerous frameworks have been developed that operationalize traditional DIQ accordingly. However, over the last decade, social IS such as social media have emerged that enable social interaction and open collaboration of voluntary prosumers, rather than simply supporting specific tasks as do traditional IS in organizations. After reviewing the current definitions of DIQ, we conclude that these definitions do not capture DIQ in social IS well, nor how it is defined, maintained, and improved through social interaction. Hence, we propose a new definition of DIQ in social IS based on the notion of "matching" between dynamic, voluntary, and heterogeneous supply and demand of data/information. We illustrate our definition with an ontological framework and discuss its implications.
The widespread availability and use of social media has drastically altered disaster response in the last few years. Although a considerable amount of empirical research addresses social phenomena enabled by social media in response to disasters, the field still lacks a clear-cut knowledge base. We conduct a systematic literature review to illustrate the state of the art with respect to collective behaviour in social media in disaster situations. We find that social media have the potential to alter well-known patterns of collective behaviour, such as the distribution of activities undertaken by different types of actors over the disaster management lifecycle. Social media furthermore loosen the structural relationships between actors as they facilitate addressing wider audiences and enable communication to unspecified receivers. We conclude that future research should specifically address the causal relationship between collective behaviour in social media and the characteristics of disasters. Furthermore, research should pay particular attention to adapting existing theories and frameworks to, and developing new theoretical approaches for, the emerging digital world.
This study investigates vowel reduction in unstressed syllables in German Learner English, comparing learners at three different proficiency levels with native speakers of Standard Southern British English. Two acoustic properties of unstressed vowels were measured: duration and formant structure. Based on Major’s (2001) Ontogeny Phylogeny Model of second language acquisition, a U-shaped developmental pattern was predicted. The results follow the predicted pattern and seem to support the chronological corollary of Major’s model: Initial transfer of L1 stress-timing properties appears to facilitate vowel reduction. The subsequent influence of universal structures surfaces in an overarticulation of unstressed vowels. The final increase of target language structures leads to a higher degree of vowel reduction.
Location nowadays is an important aspect of the Web. One scenario in this respect are archives or collections of geo-tagged media items. More concretely, we can think of collections in the arts and humanities available via OAI-PMH (a protocol for metadata harvesting) on the web or web accessible personal media archives maintained in a peer-to-peer manner. In such scenarios for search problems, source selection becomes an important aspect. For example, we would like to access only those collections containing media items in a certain geospatial region (maybe we are interested in images from Shanghai only). Here, the geospatial search criterion allows for a high selectivity. What is needed in such a scenario are expressive and nevertheless compact representations or descriptions of the ``geospatial footprint'' of each collection. A minimum bounding rectangle would be a trivial but not very accurate option. Generally, summarization techniques for this purpose can be distinguished into three categories, geometric approaches, space partitioning approaches and hybrid approaches. In this work, we present novel hybrid techniques, which mostly apply a set of approximating minimum area rectangles for subspace description together with quantization techniques in order to increase the selectivity of the summaries and, at the same time, keep the storage requirements small.