The 2012 situational policy desk research proved useful
for identifying national public policies responsive to
diabetes education and training, but these did not align
with survey participation rates for diabetes education
and training as reported by PWD, FMs and HCPs.
● In the 2012 situational analysis of national policies, it
was found that making education accessible, reimbursed
and part of mandatory treatment or care did not result
in higher diabetes education participation rates for PWD,
FMs and HCPs. Further research on policies and diabetes
education programmes is needed to understand why
participation rates are low.
● Policies are needed to support education for PWD as it
has been shown in other studies that PWD who
participated in diabetes education reported fewer
psychological problems and enhanced self-management
compared with those who had not participated in any
● As part of a global call to action, each country has a
responsibility to make improvements in diabetes
education and training access, standards or certification,
and reimbursement, all of which promote active
stakeholder participation and improved diabetes care
The DAWN2 findings emphasise the importance of
having national person-centred diabetes care policies
supporting clinical guidelines or standards of care that
include regular psychosocial assessments, and
reimbursement of psychological care as part of routine
● The responses of HCPs and PWD across the 17 countries
confirm the need for policies, diabetes care standards
and reimbursement for psychological aspects of diabetes.
BiAS 20 contains papers presented at the BiAS meeting 2014 in Windhoek (Namibia), with some additional contributions. Scholars from Nigeria, Cameroon, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia and Germany are dealing with the urgent question of how the Bible is involved in the widespread use of violence in political, social, religious, and gender conflicts. One leading question is how to deal with the textual representation of violence in the Bible. It is taken up by more general hermeneutical contributions. The other leading question is how biblical texts and/or concepts are used to cause and justify violence. This is taken up by a greater number of articles which deal with concrete societal and political contexts in Zimbabwe and other African countries. The conference in Namibia was supported as a Humboldt-Kolleg on the Bible and Violence in Africa by the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
In school education the concept of energy should be a unifying element between all natural science disciplines. Still, many characteristics of living systems appear to be in contradiction to the laws of physics. Physics often refer to energy conservation in a closed system, whereas biology is dominated by open ecological or physiological systems with a "dynamic equilibrium“. This makes the underlying, crosscutting scientific concept of energy hard to understand. Our study investigated, if the idea of an open energy system (with an in- and output of energy), located within an “idealized” closed system (in which the total amount of energy is conserved), offers the potential for a cross-disciplinary understanding. We developed a learning environment and applied interviews to identify students’ ability to think in open and closed systems. Four teaching experiments with focus groups of three students each (9th grade, secondary school, males = 10) were carried out. Within the learning environment a scaled model demonstrated processes in a biogas plant and illustrated the idea of an open system that is in direct exchange with the environment. Students easily described the conversion of energy within the scaled model, but faced severe difficulties when the energy was emitted into the environment. Consequently they showed scientifically wrong conceptions when energy could not be perceived through phenomena anymore. We propose the particle model to illustrate energy and to bridge the apparent macro- microscopic gap.