We propose a methodology of an ex ante prediction of users' performance based on analyzing the pupillary diameter variability captured by ordinary eye-tracking systems. Based on a realistic large-scale experimental evaluation of our methodology we show promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to the user's mental effort and the expected user performance. Our non-invasive contact-free methodology can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments, without disturbing the participant/user.
Studies show that social capital facilitates access to internal and external knowledge and in turn increases business value. In that respect, studies show that companies sharing some similarities such as organizational values and practices may benefit more than companies differing in various aspects. In particular, group affiliations have been shown to influence performance in specific contexts but results are mixed at best. In addition, the question of how the influence of social capital on transferring useful external knowledge might be moderated by closer affiliations between companies is virtually not addressed. Employing a survey among manufacturing companies, this paper contributes to extant research by demonstrating a moderating effect of group affiliations on the relationship between social capital and useful external knowledge.
In 2007, OASIS finalized their Business Process
Execution Language 2.0 (BPEL) specification which defines
an XML-based language for building orchestrations of Web
Services. As the validation of BPEL processes against the
official BPEL XML schema leaves room for a plethora of static
errors, the specification contains 94 static analysis rules to cover
all static errors. According to the specification, any violations
of these rules are to be checked by a standard conformant
engine at deployment time. When a violation is not detected
in BPEL processes during deployment, such errors remain
unnoticed until runtime, making them expensive to find and fix.
In this work, we investigate whether mature BPEL engines that
claimed standard conformance implement these static rules.
To answer this question, we formalize the static rules and
derive test cases based on these formalizations to evaluate
the degree of support for static analysis of six open source
BPEL engines using the BPEL Engine Test System (betsy). In
addition, we propose a method to get more accurate static
analysis conformance results by taking the feature conformance
of engines into account to exclude false positives in contrast
to the classic approach. The results reveal that support for
static analysis in these engines varies greatly, ranging from
nonexistent to full support. Furthermore, our proposed method
outperforms the classic one in terms of accuracy.
The selection of the best fitting process engine for
a specific project requires the evaluation of engines according
to various requirements. We focus on the non-functional
requirement robustness, which is critical in production environments
but hard to determine. Thus, we propose an evaluation
framework to reveal important robustness criteria of process
engines. In this work, we focus on message robustness, i.e., the
ability to handle the receipt of invalid messages appropriately.
In a case study comprising five open source BPEL engines, we
determine message robustness by injecting faults into robustly
designed processes as a reply to a previously sent request from
an external virtual service and assert their behavior. The results
show that the degree of message robustness significantly differs,
hence, robustly designed processes do not necessarily lead to
robust runtime behavior, the selected engines still play a major
While numerous studies into phenomena of intergroup conflict, outgroup derogation and similar negative relations between groups exist, there is a noticeable absence in the literature. Safe from some contributions on enemy-images in the late 1980ies, hardly any literature on enemies or enmity as a concept exists. Given Carl Schmitt’s (1932) argument for the distinction between friends and enemies as being particularly important for political thoughts and behaviours, this is somewhat surprising. However, even within neighbouring disciplines, such as philosophy or sociology, a similar lack of debates on enmity can be found. The main goal of this paper is twofold, firstly it will present an overview of the existing literature on enmity (e.g. Holt, 1989; Wiseman & Duck, 1995; Zur, 1991), providing a tentative definition of ‘enemies’ from a psychological perspective and discussing the predominant historical context of psychological studies on ‘enemies’, namely the decline of the Soviet Union as a major ‘global enemy’ to the ‘Western World’. Given there is no similar treatment of contemporary conflicts, e.g. with regards to Political Islam, it will secondly pose the question whether a clearly defined concept of enmity can add to our understanding of conflict beyond existing models of social identity and intergroup hate (e.g. Reicher, Haslam & Rath, 2008) or social cognition and contempt towards the outgroup (e.d. Cuddy, Fiske / Glick, 2008).
The goal of this paper is to examine regularities and differences in the application of the three terms assigned expatriate (AE), self-initiated expatriate (SIE) and migrant as the criteria for demarcation are unclear (Al Ariss, 2010; Baruch, Dickmann, Altman, &Bournois, 2010). This research adopts a qualitative approach, using the tool of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). The data base includes 244 definitions from 10 sociological, psychological and business journals. Results indicate that migrant is the umbrella term for AE and SIE. Therefore a SIE is a migrant who executes his dependent work abroad. In contrast to AEs, decision of employment is made by the host country organization and the first formalized action (i. e. job application) is undertaken by the individual.
The Web Services Business Process Execution language (BPEL) is a standard
for modeling and executing automated processes and is tailor-made for service
orchestration. BPEL specifies a serialization format which every BPEL implementation
has to understand, thus allowing for the portability of processes among runtime engines.
Although the modeling and execution of BPEL processes is portable between engines
to a large degree, the lifecycle management of BPEL processes is not standardized and
varies a lot for different engines. This paper presents a first approach for a uniform
and cloud-based lifecycle management of BPEL processes and engines. We infer a
uniform interface for the lifecycle management from the capabilities of current engines
and provide a prototypic implementation of a tool that manages processes and engines
on a TOSCA-compliant infrastructure.
The relationship between the Bible and Children in Africa is a topic of highest relevance. This book is treating it in two main perspectives which often are intertwined:
| The exegetical perspective “Children in the Bible” is dealing with the concepts of childhood in biblical texts, asking for example: How are children conceived in different texts. What is their status in family, society and church? What is their relation to God? What is the metaphoric use of childhood in biblical soteriology? What is the function and meaning of calling adult persons “children” (of God, or of the Apostle)?
| The contextual perspective “African children of today and the Bible” is dealing with the different life settings African children find themselves in and how the Bible is present in these life settings. Here the questions for example are: What is the status of children in family and society? How are traditional concepts of childhood changing under the conditions of poverty, HIV/AIDS and violence? How are the ideas and ideals of childhood influenced by the Bible? What is the role of the Bible in child-education? Can children’s rights be established with help of the Bible?
This volume of BiAS 17 is collecting the papers presented at the 2012 BiAS meeting in Gaborone, Botswana, with some additional contributions.
Investors often influence the strategic decisions of their holdings, such as long-term orientation and investments in intangible assets. Investigating IT capability as a strategic asset, we examine the influence of institutional shareholders' investment horizon and blockholdings on the development of organizational IT capability. We perform a panel data analysis of eleven years of archival data from publicly listed U.S. companies. Our findings show a positive relationship between a firm's ownership structure and the development of its IT capability. In particular, we find that equity owners that remain invested over long periods of time increase firms' likelihood of developing a continuous IT capability. In contrast, investors that can be classified as blockholders do not exert significant influence on their portfolio firms. By linking accounting research on firm ownership with ongoing IS research on IT capability, we provide new insides into the firm-level benefits of long-term oriented institutional investors on IT capability.
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.