Information technology (IT) and entrepreneurship are more closely related than ever. The internet, in particular, inspires the current ‘generation start-up’. While some early stage internet start-ups have quickly become major successes, others fail to secure required follow-up funding and collapse. In this paper, we build on and extend the emerging business model research stream with the aim of better understanding the differences between successful and unsuccessful early stage internet start-ups. In the qualitative first part of our mixed-method study, 17 expert informant interviews reveal that internet start-up business models are in permanent flux, continually changed and adapted by founders, who identify their professional social network (i.e. their social capital) as a critically important factor for developing the business model and ultimately making their start-ups successful. In the quantitative second part of the study, we test this claim based on a social network analysis of 70 internet start-ups and their 145 founders. We find strong support for the critical importance of the founders' social capital for early stage internet start-up success. The findings of this study advance our understanding of the relationship between founders' social capital, the development of business models and the success of early stage internet start-ups.
Network analysis has attracted significant attention when researching the phenomenon of transnational terrorism, particularly Al Qaeda. While many scholars have made valuable contributions to mapping Al Qaeda, several problems remain due to a lack of data and the omission of data provided by international organizations such as the UN. Thus, this article applies a social network analysis and subsequent mappings of the data gleaned from the Security Council's consolidated sanctions list, and asks what they can demonstrate about the structure and organizational characteristics of Al Qaeda. The study maps the Al Qaeda network on a large scale using a newly compiled data set. The analysis reveals that the Al Qaeda network consists of several hundred individual and group nodes connecting almost all over the globe. Several major nodes are crucial for the network structure, while simultaneously many other nodes only weakly and foremost regionally connect to the network. The article concludes that the findings tie in well to the latest research pointing to local and simultaneously global elements of Al Qaeda, and that the new data is a valuable source for further analyses, potentially in combination with other data.
Employing the data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) for 13 European countries, we analyse the relationship between mother's age at first birth and her health at age 45 to 56. Compared to mothers who gave birth at middle age, we found a significantly higher risk of illness among young first-time mothers. In a first step, we show that this effect largely remains after controlling for selection effects which determine age at first birth. Next, we examine whether the biosocial view could be confirmed. This approach explains the negative effect of early births on later health through a lack of social and economic resources during young mothers' life course. Thus, fewer resources are expected to affect health outcomes. However, the results indicate that the negative effect of young age at first birth remains even after controlling for health-related resources throughout the life course. The operationalisation of health-related resources as well as unobserved effects might be regarded as possible explanations for this. Due to data restrictions, indicators for educational history, job history and social support, that are all likely to depend on age at first birth and also affect later health, could not be taken into account. The results identify mechanisms of cumulative social inequality when disadvantaged women become mothers at younger age and thereby further increase their risk of disease.
The crowdfunding phenomenon has garnered a considerable amount of attention in recent years. Several online crowdfunding platforms have risen to prominence; they can be characterized as two-sided marketplaces. Recent research reveals initial insights into the dynamics and characteristics of crowdfunding networks arising from such marketplaces. This research, though, is restricted primarily to analyses of static network snapshots and at the dyadic level. In this study, we use a large longitudinal dataset to analyze the behavior of actors on both sides of the market who promote their own and fund others’ projects. We investigate the influence of endogenous and exogenous effects on the dynamics of crowdfunding networks. Our results provide evidence for mechanisms promoting a hierarchical network organization and the absence of homophily-related mechanisms regarding gender or geographic distance. Moreover, we establish that experienced and popular project creators fund fewer projects.
Organizations increasingly rely on group-based organizational structures to manage uncertain environments. However, at the group level there is still a limited understanding of how boundary-spanning activities should be managed to increase group performance. In this paper, we propose "out-group-tie centralization" as a concept that refers to the variation in the group members' network ties to other social actors who are not members of the group itself. When the out-group-tie centralization is low, no group member enjoys substantially more ties to other social actors outside the group than does any other group member. A panel analysis with 120 work groups from a medium-size German bank over a 12-month period reveals a reversed u-shaped relationship between out-group-tie centralization and group performance. However, the results indicate no association between the density of a work group communication network and that group's performance.