In European parliamentary democracies political parties control candidate selection, maintain cohesion in the legislature and support governments. In addition to these classic functions, parties also organise the legislature delegating power to legislators, specifically as committee chairs and party coordinators. Delegation is inherently dangerous, involving potential agency loss. Parties, however, have ex-ante and ex-post institutional mechanisms to deal with agency problems. In this paper, a case study is made of the Portuguese legislature, arguing that parties make use of their pivotal role in selecting legislators as committee chairs and party coordinators to keep tabs on legislators to thwart shirking from the party line. This paper finds that political parties use incumbency as an ex-ante screening mechanism of committee chairs and party coordinators in looking for reliable signals of past behaviour to decrease uncertainty. Additionally, evidence suggests that extraparliamentary party structure is used as an institutional arena for ex-post control of party coordinators.
Increasing availability of tablets at home—even for the youngest ones—
is a fact. Therefore, research on mathematical play and learning apps is of growing
importance. The project MaiKe (Mathematik im Kindergarten entdecken) develops
its own and mathematically sound app. MaiKe regards and refl ects in concept,
development and design both developmental psychology and mathematics educational
fi ndings and research. MaiKe takes into account the broad range of competencies
which are considered to promote a successful school beginning. The concept
and design information about the app as well as concrete examples of technical
realisation and use are given.
Introduction: Recent meta-analysis showed that diabetes seems to be a
risk factor for incident depression. This prospective study examines the role
of elevated diabetes distress on the persistence or the recovery from elevated
depressive symptoms at a 6-month follow-up.Methods: Participants
completed the CES-D. A score of >=16 indicate elevated depressive symptoms.
The Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) assessed diabetes related
distress; a PAID score of >=30 indicate moderate diabetes related distress.
Logistic regression models were performed. Persistence and recovery from
elevated depressive symptoms were the dependent variables. The independent
variable was diabetes related distress. The models were adjusted for
potential demographic (age, gender) or medial confounders (BMI, diabetes
duration, A1C, diabetes type and late complications).Results: 351 diabetic
patients were included (age 50,8 ±11.4 yrs, 52% female, 58% type 2 diabetic
patients, diabetes duration 12.9 ±11.1 yrs, BMI 29,9 ±6,9 kg/m², A1c
7.9 ±1.5%). At baseline 125 patients (35.6%) reported elevated depressive
symptoms. At follow up 96 patients (27.3%) still had an elevated depression
score. If diabetes related distress was present at baseline the hazard ratio
of having persistent elevated depressive symptoms at follow up was 6.67
(95% CI 3.79 - 11.72). Adjusting for confounding variables did not change
the hazard ratio substantially (HR 6.02 95% CI 3.32 - 10.89). In addition the
chance for recovery from elevated depressive symptoms was signifi cantly
reduced if diabetes related distress was present (Odds ratio 0.37 95% CI
0.17 - 0.77). Controlling for possible confounders did not change the odds
ratio (0.36 95% CI 0.16 - 0.82).Conclusion: Diabetes related distress seems
to play a decisive role for an unfavorable course of depressive symptoms.
Diabetes related distress may be a mediating factor between diabetes and
depression. Addressing diabetes related distress may be able to ameliorate
depression in people with diabetes.