Gecekondu are informal settlements that have been at the heart of the rapid urbanisation of modern Turkey, especially in Istanbul and Izmir. Gecekondu squatting started in the 1940s as a need-oriented practice of poor rural migrants who needed cheap accomodation in Turkey's growing cities. Over time, gecekondu neighborhoods were legalized, and their dwellers became part of the urban middle class by erecting apartment buildings on their plots. In the 1980s, it became common to buy, and later to steal, privately owned agricultural land in order to construct apartment buildings on it. Appropriation was no longer geared towards need, but towards profit.
Appropriation of state-owned (agricultural) land was already a common practice in Ottoman times, and so was rural work migration to major cities, such as Istanbul and Izmir. In the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide and the Population Exchange with Greece, private property of Armenians and Greeks was appropriated and squatted by Muslims. This article argues that these historical precedents informed the way in which gecekondu dwellers legitimated their need-oriented appropriation of state land. With the arrival of neoliberalism, however, appropriation of state property no longer served to alleviate poverty, but became big business. Today, it is major real estate firms and the state-owned public housing authority (TOKI) that privatize state land in order to build gated communities for the upper middle class.
This article studies the application of laws regulating the settlement and compensation of
migrants who came to Turkey from Greece in the course of the population exchange. By
using petitions and administrative documents, it discusses the questions of legality and
legitimacy with regard to two problems: First, the status of exchangees as a group privileged
by law, and second, the bureaucratic procedure through which they were given temporary
property rights (tefvīż ). The article shows that laws can by no means be taken to be identical
with their application, and that various notions of legality and legitimacy were at play, both in
different state administrations and among those affected by their policies. It thus makes an
important contribution to a better understanding of the relationship between law, state and
society in early Republican Turkey.
Inaugural lecture delivered in abridged form on the acceptance of the Chair of Political Science, especially Governance of Complex and Innovative Technological Systems at the Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, Germany (June 1st, 2016).
From its early stages, cloud computing has evolved from being a principal source for computing resources to a fully fledged alternative for rapid application deployment. Especially the service model Platform as a Service facilitates the hosting of scalable applications in the cloud by providing managed and highly automated application environments. Although most offerings are conceptually comparable to each other, the interfaces for application deployment and management vary greatly between vendors. Despite providing similar functionalities, technically different workflows and commands provoke vendor lock-in and hinder portability as well as interoperability. To that end, we present a unified interface for application deployment and management among cloud platforms. We validate our proposal with a reference implementation targeting four leading cloud platforms. The results show the feasibility of our approach and promote the possibility of portable DevOps scenarios in PaaS environments.
This study attempts to explore and triangulate with different methods the essence, definition, and methods of the grassroots practitioner term growth hacking. In the qualitative first part of our study, we conduct 12 expert informant interviews and a case study. In the quantitative second part of the study, we conduct a quantitative Twitter analysis to gain additional insights on the findings from the qualitative first part. As a result, we differentiate growth hacking from traditional marketing strategies and create a growth hacking process model depicting a sort of consensus of what can be thought to be integral parts of growth hacking.
This paper sheds light on cultural differences in the understanding of historical military events between Chinese, English, French, German, and Swedish Wikipedia language editions. Differences in understanding historical events can lead to intercultural misinterpretation and conflicts that cause negative consequences for international relations. We identified the most important historical events, mined cross-cultural relations, investigated word usage in war-related pages and performed network, complexity, and sentiment analysis. We also analyzed the usage of war-related words and the quantity of war-related events mentioned in different languages. Our findings suggest that World War I and World War II are the most important historical events within English, French, and German cultures and English Wikipedia contains more violence and war-related content, with a higher level of complexity than other language editions.