We asked whether and how people appreciate ambiguous artworks and examined the possible mechanisms underlying the appeal of perceptual challenge in art. Although experimental research has shown people’s particular appreciation for highly familiar and prototypical objects that are fluently processed, there is increasing evidence that in the arts people often prefer ambiguous materials which are processed less fluently. Here, we empirically show that modern and contemporary ambiguous artworks evoking perceptual challenge are indeed appreciated. By applying a multilevel modeling approach together with multidimensional measurement of aesthetic appreciation, we revealed that the higher the subjectively perceived degree of ambiguity within an artwork, the more participants liked it and the more interesting and affecting it was for them. These dimensions of aesthetic appreciation were also positively related to the subjectively reported strength of insights during elaboration of the artworks. The estimated solvability of the experienced ambiguity, in contrast, was not relevant for liking and even negatively linked to interest and affect. Consequently, we propose a critical view of the frequently reported idea that processing (modern) art simply equals a kind of problem solving task. We suggest the dynamic gain of insights during the elaboration of an ambiguous artwork, rather than the state of having solved a problem, to be a mechanism possibly relevant to the appeal of challenge in the perception of ambiguous art.
An airport is the gateway which facilitates access to air transport. As a reaction to very diverse attacks on the air transport system during the last decades a broad range of security measures has been introduced to mitigate possible threats. The challenge to provide a trouble free experience for the passenger and, at the same time, to oper-ate more efficiently calls for a proactive approach. This requires the definition of future requirements that allow an adaptation of the security system. When dealing with uncertainty that future-oriented decisions inevitably display, it is important to gain as much knowledge as possible about a system’s general structure. The approach described in this paper systematically documents elements and relationships of the airport security system. It consists of threat scenario elements as well as security measures. The development of a software tool, the so-called Scenario Builder, is described and its application for the identification of possible future threats ex-plained. The presented approach offers intuitive access to the underlying structure of the airport security system. It provides decision makers with a possibility to interact with the system and anticipate effects of threat development, thereby enabling robust, future-oriented decisions.
The second album on "Slavic Alphabet tables" presents more than 60 additional sources: grammars and primers from Slavic countries (mainly Russia and Bulgaria, to a lesser degree Serbia), manuals on Old Church Slavonic, and several Western sources. It complements the first volume which was devoted to typographical works of Western origin.