The main research objective of my thesis is to contribute to a broader understanding of social inequality by going beyond inequalities solely derived from the labor market and find theoretical arguments as well as empirical evidence for the establishment of wealth as a distinct dimension of social stratification and, more importantly, of social inequality. With social stratification, I am referring to a society’s ranking of categories of individuals into a hierarchy of social positions. Social stratification becomes social inequality if access to these positions is unequal and if these positions are systematically related to advantageous or disadvantageous conditions of acting and living. In the course of my thesis, I will show that both these conditions apply to wealth: first, access is unequal and second, being of higher (lower) wealth is related to advantageous (disadvantageous) conditions of living. My thesis consists of five empirical studies that are knotted together by the common conception of wealth as a distinct dimension of social inequality. In order to find empirical support for this argument, in each study, I will approach the topic of wealth, or wealth inequality, from different perspectives. All studies represent theory-driven empirical analysis and are designed as international comparative studies.
In this PhD thesis the question “What makes firms innovative?” is evaluated. In particular, the thesis investigates the differential impact of inter-organizational social networks comprising various different corporate partners on the knowledge stock of a company, evaluates how and to what extent internal knowledge capabilities contribute to innovation success, and scrutinizes how both inter-organizational social networks and internal knowledge capabilities interact and thereby affect innovation success. Therefore, the thesis combines the social capital theory and the concept of absorptive capacity on an organizational level and applies survey data from the German manufacturing industry. Among others, the thesis shows that, first, innovativeness of external partners is contagious, second, that besides customers especially R&D partners can be valuable sources of different types of knowledge, and, third, how the usage of knowledge management systems fosters innovation success. Thereby the results contribute not only to the innovation literature and, in particular, to the open innovation literature, but also to the research fields of inter-organizational knowledge transfer, absorptive capacity, and social capital theory.
The challenge of realism is one of the common features of current philosophical debates, across different cultural traditions, and in many areas of investigation (epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, theory of action, etc.). The implications of realism for political philosophy and political practice, though, are just starting to become an object of systematic discussions. Such implications, however, are significant, since the area of politics is contiguous with that of ethics and action, for example. This volume intends to contribute to debates on the relevance of realism – especially moral realism – for politics. The essays included in the collection address a number of related issues, ranging from foundational problems of realism in ethics, action theory and politics, to questions about pragmatics, to difficulties in political theory, and to political hindrances related to economics and legal theory. The common focus of all essays is the relevance of realism for a conception of practical rationality in political contexts.
Description logics (DLs) represent a widely studied logical formalism with a significant impact in the field of knowledge representation and the Semantic Web. However, they are equipped with a classical descriptive semantics that is characterised by a platonic notion of truth, being insufficiently expressive to deal with evolving and incomplete information, as from data streams or ongoing processes. Such partially determined and incomplete knowledge can be expressed by relying on a constructive semantics. This thesis investigates the model and proof theory of a constructive variant of the basic description logic ALC, called cALC. The semantic dimension of constructive DLs is investigated by replacing the classical binary truth interpretation of ALC with a constructive notion of truth. This semantic characterisation is crucial to represent applications with partial information adequately, and to achieve both consistency under abstraction as well as robustness under refinement, and on the other hand is compatible with the Curry-Howard isomorphism in order to form the cornerstone for a DL-based type theory. The proof theory of cALC is investigated by giving a sound and complete Hilbert-style axiomatisation, a Gentzen-style sequent calculus and a labelled tableau calculus showing finite model property and decidability. Moreover, cALC can be strengthened towards normal intuitionistic modal logics and classical ALC in terms of sound and complete extensions and hereby forms a starting point for the systematic investigation of a constructive correspondence theory.
In this volume, we are publishing three centuries of Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabet tables from Western sources. The illustrations presented here have been enhanced, cleaned up and digitally restored. Most of them have never been published in such a high quality before.