In the last decade, several efforts have been made to improve teaching and intervening practice in preschool classrooms by means of professional development programs (Mar-tinez-Beck & Zaslow, 2006; OECD, 2012). In-service professional development for pre-school teachers varies widely with respect to amount, duration, delivery format (traditional workshop and course vs. modern approaches such as coaching, mentoring, blended learning) and content (Oberhuemer, 2012; 2013). In general, it is assumed that in-service training enhances teachers’ knowledge, skills, and classroom practice. Improved teaching practice enhances student achievement. The connection seems intuitive, but empirical demonstration is difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to conduct a research synthesis on the results of in-service professional development effects and to draw conclusions about the findings on potential effect modifiers into an integrated frame-work.
Systematic review procedures and meta-analytic techniques were used to estimate the effectiveness of in-service programs. The review consists of experimental studies (RCT, CRT, quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies) that have evaluated the impact of professional development for teachers working in center-based care on quality ratings and child development. Electronic searches (ERIC, PsycINFO, ProQuest, FIS, and WISO) and hand searches in renowned journals from 1970 to 2011 produced 1,162 hits. Two inde-pendent coders extracted statistical information from the full texts and screened the litera-ture on the quality of the studies, in-service characteristics, and training transfer factors. A randomized multi-level procedure was used to aggregate the summary impact, where effect sizes were nested under treatment.
Overall, 36 studies provided sufficient data to conduct a meta-analysis of in-service train-ing effects on quality ratings. The aggregation of findings revealed a medium summary effect g’ = 0.64 (SE = 0.071). Alongside methodological variables, the size of the effect was statistically moderated by training intensity and format. In-service programs with 45 to 60 hours of training and programs that used coaching as their sole format were the most effective.
The impact of professional development programs on the language and literacy abilities of young children have been investigated in 48 studies. The summary effect was small
g’ = 0.38 (SE = 0.045). Differential impacts and variations in the size of the effects were found for different outcome domains. Effect sizes were moderated by methodological as-pects, training design and intensity. Programs with 15 to 30 hours of training were the most effective in fostering language and literacy skills. Approaches that used mixed delivery types, in particular the combination of workshop and course had a larger impact.
For the meta-analysis of in-service training effects on social skills and reduced problem behavior, 13 studies provided sufficient data. A small summary effect was found: g’ = 0.45 (SE = 0.074). However, differential effects emerged for different outcome domains. In particular, larger effects were found for the promotion of social skills than for the reduction of problem behavior. Alongside methodological variables, training programs with a duration of 9 months or short-term programs with less than 30 hours of training were significantly more effective.
To investigate the link between in-service professional development, quality improvements and child development, 9 studies were found that provide data on both quality ratings and child development. In-service training effects on student achievement could be significantly predicted by quality improvements that occurred during training. More than
53 % of the variance in effects on child development was explained by the quality ratings which emerged as a result of in-service professional training.
In addition to the meta-analyses, narrative reviews identified some features of highly ef-fective in-service programs with a calculated effect of g > 0.80. Narrative analysis indicat-ed that a narrow content focus and educational principles matter. In particular, effective programs provided opportunities for active learning, guidance and feedback as well as performance-based assignments during training and between training sessions. Further, the trainers of highly effective programs were either the authors of the program or had a specific pretraining/license for the program.
Several effect modifiers were tested. In the majority of cases, the effects were influenced by methodological issues (e.g., pretest differences, reliability of scales or informants) and training intensity in hours. However, the results for training delivery variables were incon-sistent. Clear conclusions on other characteristics cannot be made from the meta-regression, because the findings were either inconsistent or missing information in primary studies hindered the investigation.
In summary, there are some beneficial programs and the synthesis of research findings suggests that most of the in-service training has positive effects on the quality of early education and child development. The results demonstrate that quality improvements are a key mechanism to enhance student achievement. Some conclusions for achieving highly professional development with regards to duration and intensity, educational principles and trainers can be drawn. Recommendations for further research include high quality research designs (e.g., equivalence of groups, reliable scales, etc.) and data collection on confounding and contextual variables. Nevertheless, some questions remain in analyzing in-service training effects. In particular, more research and primary studies are needed to investigate the heterogeneity of the results and the moderating role of implementation processes and program fidelity.
A public-private partnership (PPP) is an organizational arrangement in which knowledge and resources are pooled in order to realize outcomes. Although PPPs have become common practice in spatial planning and development, there is a continuous search for their ideal organizational form and management. This is fueled by the often poor performance in terms of e.g. time delays and budget overruns. Whilst comparative studies have been conducted into the outcomes of certain organizational forms and management strategies, fewer comparative studies evaluate their combined effects. The goal of this study is to explore what configurations of certain organizational forms and management may produce good outcomes. This is done by conducting a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of survey data of 50 managers involved in urban regeneration companies (URCs) in the Netherlands.
An understudied aspect for the successful completion of PPP infrastructure projects is the extent to which they are satisfactorily implemented. Studying PPP implementation is important though, because well-planned projects can fail if project implementation is inadequately managed. This article aims to find out which management and public–private cooperation approaches produce satisfaction for public procurers in the implementation phase of different kinds of infrastructure projects. To this purpose, twenty-seven Dutch road construction projects are systematically analyzed with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The results show four configurations that produce satisfaction. It is concluded that externally-oriented management, which is characterized by a stakeholder-oriented project implementation approach, and close public–private cooperation, where public and private partners work together closely and interactively, are important for achieving satisfaction. In less complex projects with narrower scopes, however, the partners may rely on less interactive forms of cooperation, more characterized by monitoring contract compliance.
In this volume, we are publishing three centuries of Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabet tables from Western sources. The illustrations presented here have been enhanced, cleaned up and digitally restored. Most of them have never been published in such a high quality before.
The second edition has been expanded to feature even more material.
This dissertation presents research projects which investigated dynamics in the perception and appreciation of ambiguous and indeterminate art. It examines how semantical instability in art can induce pleasure in the perceiver although defying an easy consumption. The idea pursued within this thesis is that insights gained during an elaboration of such objects lead to an increase in appreciation (Aesthetic Aha effect, Muth & Carbon, 2013)—the creation of meaning itself being rewarding. The comprised research projects examine such dynamics in perception and appreciation of visual artworks which are semantically instable. A crucial quality of these objects might be that they confront the perceiver with semantical instability as well as opportunity for insight: for instance, we like Cubist artworks more the better we are able to discern identifiable objects in them—still they never dissolve into an easy recognizable interpretation (Muth, Pepperell, & Carbon, 2013a). Also the solvability of ambiguity in another set of visual artworks did not have positive effects on liking, interest, and affect. Instead, the strength of insights gained during their elaboration predicted appreciation positively (Muth, Hesslinger, & Carbon, 2015). In line with the Aesthetic Aha effect (Muth & Carbon, 2013) also the sudden emergence of Gestalt within indeterminate artistic movies elicited an increase in liking. Interest—in contrast –already increased prior to these moments of insight (Muth, Raab, & Carbon, 2015). The presented findings highlight that art perception does not equal a kind of problem solving process in which semantical instability needs to be resolved for the artwork to appeal. Instead appreciation might benefit from rewarding insights into the instable.
The main objective of this thesis is to bridge the gap between modeling method experts on the one side and tool developers on the other. More precisely, the focus is on the specification of requirements for multi-view modeling tools. In this regard, the thesis introduces a methodological approach that supports the specification of conceptual designs for multi-view modeling tools in a stepwise manner: the MuVieMoT approach. MuVieMoT utilizes generic multi-view modeling concepts and the model-driven engineering paradigm to establish an overarching specification of multi-view modeling tools with an emphasis on consistency requirements. The approach builds on and extends the theoretical foundation of metamodeling and multi-view modeling: generic multi-view modeling concepts, integrated multi-view modeling approaches, and possibilities for formalized modeling method specifications. Applicability and utility of MuVieMoT are evaluated using an illustrative scenario, therefore specifying a conceptual design for a multi-view modeling tool for the Semantic Object Model enterprise modeling method. The thesis moreover introduces the MuVieMoT modeling environment, enabling the efficient application of the approach as well as the model-driven development of initial multi-view modeling tools based on the conceptual models created with MuVieMoT. Consequently, the approach fosters an intersubjective and unambiguous understanding of the tool requirements between method experts and tool developers.
An airport is the gateway which facilitates access to air transport. As a reaction to very diverse attacks on the air transport system during the last decades a broad range of security measures has been introduced to mitigate possible threats. The challenge to provide a trouble free experience for the passenger and, at the same time, to oper-ate more efficiently calls for a proactive approach. This requires the definition of future requirements that allow an adaptation of the security system. When dealing with uncertainty that future-oriented decisions inevitably display, it is important to gain as much knowledge as possible about a system’s general structure. The approach described in this paper systematically documents elements and relationships of the airport security system. It consists of threat scenario elements as well as security measures. The development of a software tool, the so-called Scenario Builder, is described and its application for the identification of possible future threats ex-plained. The presented approach offers intuitive access to the underlying structure of the airport security system. It provides decision makers with a possibility to interact with the system and anticipate effects of threat development, thereby enabling robust, future-oriented decisions.
The second album on "Slavic Alphabet tables" presents more than 60 additional sources: grammars and primers from Slavic countries (mainly Russia and Bulgaria, to a lesser degree Serbia), manuals on Old Church Slavonic, and several Western sources. It complements the first volume which was devoted to typographical works of Western origin.