Relationship of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism with Various Factors of Pain Processing: Subjective Experience, Motor Responsiveness and Catastrophizing
Anna J. Karmann
- Although serotonin is known to play an important role in pain processing, the relationship between the polymorphism in 5-HTTLPR and pain processing is not well understood. To examine the relationship more comprehensively, various factors of pain processing having putative associations with 5-HT functioning were studied, namely the subjective pain experience (pain threshold, rating of experimental pain), catastrophizing about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale = PCS) and motor responsiveness (facial expression of pain). In 60 female and 67 male participants, heat pain stimuli were applied by a contact thermode to assess pain thresholds, supra-threshold ratings and a composite score of pain-relevant facial responses. Participants also completed the PCS and were grouped based on their 5-HTTLPR genotype (bi-allelic evaluation) into a group with s-allele carriers (ss, sl) and a second group without (ll). S-allele carriers proved to have lower pain thresholds and higher PCS scores. These two positive findings were unrelated to each other. No other difference between genotype groups became significant. In all analyses, “age” and “gender” were controlled for. In s-allele carriers the subjective pain experience and the tendency to catastrophize about pain was enhanced, suggesting that the s-allele might be a risk factor for the development and maintenance of pain. This risk factor seems to act via two independent routes, namely via the sensory processes of subjective pain experiences and via the booster effects of pain catastrophizing.
Vom Königshof Roudeshof zur Bischofspfalz Lyndeloch – Ein mittelalterlicher Zentralort Süddeutschlands im Fokus archäologisch-historischer Forschung
Eike Henning Michl
Die deutschen Wochentagsbezeichnungen im europäischen Kontext. Germanisch-deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom 1. bis 10. Jahrhundert
Kontinuität hinter römischen Mauern : Das römische Reginum als Nucleus der frühmittelalterlichen Topographie Regensburgs
Römische Ortsnamen in Bayern
Regulation During Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts
- This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the regulation of the group process is important. This regulation might occur on both an individual level and a social level. Several modes of regulation have been identified, but the terms used for them vary tremendously—including social regulation, socially shared regulation, coregulation, and other-regulation. This article seeks to clarify the diverse terminology. To this end, we use a theoretical framework based on Winne and Hadwin's (1998) model of self-regulated learning to analyze how the different terms are used in the literature. We make and exemplify suggestions for a consistent usage of terms.
Comparison of the efficacy of a diabetes education programme for type 1 diabetes (PRIMAS) in a randomised controlled trial setting and the effectiveness in a routine care setting: Results of a comparative effectiveness study.
- Background: The effectiveness of an intervention in clinical practice is often reduced compared to the efficacy demonstrated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). In this comparative effectiveness study, the RCT-proven efficacy of a diabetes education programme for type 1 diabetic patients (PRIMAS) was compared to the effectiveness observed in an implementation trial (IT) under routine care conditions.
Methods: 75 patients with type 1 diabetes received PRIMAS through an RCT, whereas 179 patients were observed in an implementation trial. Baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes at the 6-month follow-up (improvement of HbA1c, hypoglycaemia problems, and diabetes-related distress) were compared.
Results: At baseline, the type 1 diabetic patients in the RCT had a significant longer diabetes duration (18.7±12.3 vs. 13.8±12.7 yrs., p = .005), lower self-efficacy scores (21.9±4.7 vs. 23.7±6.1, p = .02) and a greater number of diabetes complications (0.8±1.3 vs. 0.4±0.9, p = .02). After 6 months, PRIMAS achieved comparable effects under RCT and implementation trial conditions, as demonstrated by improvement in HbA1c (-0.36%±1.1 vs. -0.37±1.2; Δ -0.01, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.31) and hypoglycaemia unawareness (-0.5±1.4 vs. -0.3±1.4; Δ 0.18, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.57). The likelihood of clinical improvement did not depend on the trial setting (RCT vs. IT: OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.33). The participants with worse glycaemic control (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.92), hypoglycaemia problems (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.97) or elevated diabetes distress (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.89) had a better chance of clinical improvement.
Conclusions: The effectiveness of PRIMAS under routine care conditions was comparable to the efficacy demonstrated in the RCT. Clinical improvement was independent of the setting in which PRIMAS was evaluated. The PRIMAS education programme for type 1 diabetes can be delivered under conditions of routine care without a loss of effectiveness, compared to its original evaluation in an RCT.
Distal and proximal indicators of teacher effectiveness as predictors of students' mathematics competence in Germany (Grade 5 – 7)
- The focus of research on educational effectiveness has turned from school effectiveness towards the effectiveness of the teachers as research in the recent past has shown that teachers are the most important determinant of student learning. However, there is still a lack of consensus as to whether teacher variables (distal) or teaching variables (proximal) are more important. A strong body of knowledge has shown the importance of teacher variables in student learning. However, Seidel and Shavelson (2007) in their recent meta-analyses claimed that teaching factors are more important than teacher factors because they are proximal to the teaching-learning process. They argued that past studies on teacher effectiveness using quasi experimental and experimental studies have shown stronger effect on student learning than correlational studies because they have measured teacher effectiveness proximally. Therefore, they suggested correlational studies should also measure teacher effectiveness proximally to get better results. Although, it may be true that proximal indicators are more important than distal indicators, but findings from a single meta-analysis study are not enough to diminish the significance of teacher factors. More research is needed in correlational studies to explore this issue. The current study aims to measure the effectiveness of both distal and proximal indicators of teacher effectiveness in order to see which factors strongly predict student competence in the domain of mathematics.
The study aims to investigate the role of teacher factors (teacher belief, professional training, planning, cooperation among teachers, job satisfaction and stress in planning and classroom) and their instruction (cognitive activation, cooperative learning, cognitively challenging tasks, student engagement and differentiation.) in the mathematics competence development of students. The design of my study is longitudinal in nature. National Educational Panel (NEPS) data is used to investigate the effect of teachers on students’ mathematics competence development from grade 5-7 with a sample of 151 teachers and their 1706 students. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the data in order to confirm the construct validity of the questionnaires. Mathematics competence was measured by NEPS through a standardized test at the beginning of grade 5 and grade 7. Multiple regression analyses and multi-group analyses were carried out in Mplus 7.11 to analyze the research questions. The study found that the following distal indicators are significant predictors of mathematics competence belief about deep learning, professional collaboration, individual needs of students, and stress in planning and classroom. Among proximal indicators student engagement, cognitively challenging tasks and differentiation showed the significant effect. Distal indicators explained 11% and proximal indicators explained 6% of the total variance in mathematics competence of students. The study found that distal indicators are stronger predictors of mathematics competence than proximal indicators and the importance of distal factors cannot be undermined. Once student previous mathematics competence was controlled for professional collaboration was no longer significant predictor and the amount of variance explained by distal and proximal factors decreased. A multi-group analysis was performed in order to examine do teachers in different school tracks (lower secondary school, middle secondary school, multi-track school, comprehensive school and grammar school) vary in effectiveness. However, no meaningful pattern of difference in teacher effectiveness across schools types was found. Implications of the findings are discussed.
How does Sexual Orientation Affect Perceptions of Single People?
- Past research has found that single people are perceived more negatively than coupled people. However, in past research, the target’s sexual orientation was not explicitly mentioned. The current experiment manipulated the sexual orientation of targets and also measured the sexual orientation of participants to test whether the relatively negative perceptions of single people are held about people and believed by people regardless of their sexual orientation. Three hundred ninety heterosexual and 226 gay and lesbian participants from Israel and the United States read descriptions of target people. Targets were described as heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; single or in a long-term relationship; and men or women. Although single people were consistently perceived more negatively than coupled people, F(1, 600) = 130.78, p < .001, η2 = .18, participants perceived the differences between coupled and single targets as being largest when they rated targets of the same sexual orientation as themselves, F(1, 600) = 10.38, p =.001, η2 = 0.02. Furthermore, regardless of their own sexual orientation, participants who expressed a stronger desire for a long-term romantic relationship held more negative views of single people compared to coupled people, r = .10, p < .01.
Local heating at the insulin injection site by the use of the InsuPad is able to reduce post-prandial glucose excursion in daily life
- Background and aims: The insulin action profiles of subcutaneously injected
short acting insulin analogues are still slow compared to physiologically
released human insulin. Thus, postprandial glucose excursions cannot be
avoided. InsuPad is a medical device designed to accelerate insulin delivery
rate by applying local heat at the insulin injection site. Whenever an insulin
injection is given, the skin surface temperature is heated up locally to 38.5
C° for 30 minutes. This pilot-study examines the impact of the InsuPad use
on postprandial glucose excursions after breakfast and dinner in daily life
Materials and methods: Insulin resistant diabetic patients were instructed
to use the InsuPad when injecting bolus insulin prior to breakfast and dinner
for one month and to measure their blood glucose at least five times per day
(pre- and post-breakfast, pre-lunch and pre- and post-dinner). In the other
study phase patients were instructed to maintain the same blood glucose
measurement schedule for one month, without using the InsuPad. The order
of the study phases was randomized. All blood glucose data were transmitted
to a central computer using the DIASEND System. A valid pre-post-prandial
measurement time difference was 75 - 135 minutes. An ANOVA, controlling
for order of study phase, patient and meal (breakfast vs. dinner) was used to
analyze the effect of the InsuPad on postprandial glucose excursions. In this
study 10 diabetic patients took part (30% type 1 diabetes, age: 51.5 ±7.7 yrs.,
diabetes duration: 15.7 ± 7.7 yrs.; HbA1c: 8.2 ± 0.9%; bolus insulin dose: 51.7
± 22.2 insulin units per day; total insulin dose 0.92 insulin units per kg).
Results: Preprandial blood glucose levels were similar in the phase with (151.7
±46.8 mg/dl) and without the InsuPad (148.5 ±38.6 mg/dl, p=.385). Postprandial
glucose decreased by 0.05 ± 59.1 mg/dl, if InsuPad was used, whereas the
postprandial glucose levels increased by 11.3 ± 56.3 mg/dl if the InsuPad was
not used (p=.011). The number (283 vs. 257) and proportion of valid measurements
(65.5% vs. 64.4%, p=.740) in the phase with and without InsuPad
were highly comparable. The time differences between pre- and post-prandial
glucose measurements were very similar in both study phases (102.7 ±
19.0 vs. 102.3 ± 15.6 minutes with and without InsuPad, p=.777). The overall
glycaemic control (mean total blood glucose values) was significantly lower
when using the InsuPad compared to the no-use-phase (149.7 ± 54.5 mg/dl
vs. 158.7 ±57.7 mg/dl; p=.016). The percentage of hypoglycaemic (< 60 mg/dl)
or hyperglycaemic values (> 300 mg/dl) was slightly decreased when using the
InsuPad, but the difference was not statistically significant (% hypoglycaemic
values 1.5% vs. 1.8%, p=.496; % hyperglycaemic values 1.6% vs. 2.1%, p=.250).
Conclusion: This pilot-study indicates that local heating of the insulin injection
site in insulin resistant diabetic patients by using the InsuPad is able to reduce post-prandial blood glucose excursions as well as mean daily glucose
values significantly in daily life conditions. Safety parameters like the prevalence
of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic glucose measurements were not
affected by the use of InsuPad.