The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for
adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and
May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents
received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control
group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at
baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-
related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0;
42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated
measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the
four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time
and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p b 0.01) and binge drinking
(F =7.0005, p b 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect
sizes of drinking frequency (d = −1.18), binge drinking (d = −1.61) and drunkenness (d = −2.87) were
much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored
way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without
motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions.
(German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).
PaQ (CeQur SA) is a simple to use patch-on device which provides set
basal rates and bolus insulin on demand. PaQ was designed to minimize
barriers to insulin therapy. In addition to feasibility of use, safety and
effi cacy (reported elsewhere), this study analyzed the impact of the use of
PaQ on patient reported outcomes (PRO) including; barriers against insulin
treatment, diabetes related distress and negative attitudes towards insulin
therapy in twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on a stable multiple
daily injections (MDI) insulin regimen. This single center, open label, single
arm study was comprised of three 2-week periods; baseline (MDI), transition
from MDI to PaQ, and PaQ treatment. Three validated questionnaires were
completed at the end of the baseline and PaQ treatment periods; Barriers to
Insulin Treatment - Questionnaire (BIT), Problem Areas In Diabetes -Scale
(PAID) and Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS). Nineteen patients (age
59 ±5 y, T2D duration 15±7 y, 21% female, A1C 7.7 ±0.7%) completed the
questionnaires at the two measurement points. There was a strong and
signifi cant effect of PaQ in the mean BIT total score (2.5 to 2.1, difference
(D)=0.4 ±0.6; p = .01, effect size (d) = 0.70). Patients perceived less hardship
from insulin therapy (overall improvement d = 0.35), less stigmatization by
insulin injection (overall improvement d=0.28) and less fear of hypoglycemia
(overall reduction d=0.29). Diabetes related distress was slightly reduced
(PAID 21.7 to 21.0, D=0.7 ±6.7, p = 0.79, d= 10). A non-signifi cant reduction
was also seen in the mean ITAS score (42.80 to 40.80, D=2.0 ±6.5, p = .20,
d= 31). The study is limited by both the uncontrolled design and small sample
size, however, the results and the moderate to large effect sizes suggest
that the use of PaQ has benefi cial and clinically relevant effects to overcome
barriers to and negative appraisal of insulin treatment, without increasing
other diabetes related distress.
In this book, I study how and with what consequences the creation of sanctions committees within Security Council sanctions regimes affects the Council’s dominant logic of decision-making and the content of decisions taken. Security Council sanctions regimes increasingly involve complex governance projects that require the adoption of numerous detailed implementation decisions over extended periods of time. The Security Council increasingly delegates these decisions to its sanctions committees with identical membership. In a first step, I develop a theoretical model of committee governance. I argue that the establishment of sanctions committees creates a two-stage decision process which affects collective decision processes in ways that favor rule-based decisions even though the same group of actors adopts all relevant decisions. This effect occurs if a group of actors separates a comprehensive decision-process into a stage of rule-making and a stage of subsequently applying these rules to a stream of implementation decisions. While rulemaking actors are subject to constraints of consistency, in rule-application, actors face coordination situations that create the demand for externally provided rules or internally produced precedents as focal points. Subsequently, based on previously neglected documents, I analyze the effects of committee governance for five Security Council sanctions regimes (Iraq, Al-Qaida, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan and Iran). I conclude that delegating implementation decisions to sanctions committees may commit even the most powerful member states to rule-based decision-making.
Der Autor stellt Grundüberlegungen zur Sprachtypologie an. Im Vordergrund stehen die Hauptkategorien der grammatischen Beschreibung und Typen der Satzkonstitution. Die Überlegungen werden insbesonders anhand von Sprachdaten aus folgenden Sprachen illustriert: Samoanisch, Baskisch und Cayuga (Irokesisch).
Der Grundsatz der Wesentlichkeit (materiality principle) ist zentrales und anerkanntes Prinzip in der Abschlussprüfung. Allerdings liefern weder das Gesetz noch nationale oder internationale Prüfungsstandards einen operationalen Maßstab dafür, wie die festgestellten Einzelfehler zu einem (aggregierten) Gesamtfehler zu verdichteten sind und ab welchem Ausmaß dieser Gesamtfehler als wesentlich einzustufen ist (mit entsprechenden Konsequenzen für den Bestätigungsvermerk). Stattdessen wird auf das pflichtgemäße Ermessen (professional judgment) des Abschlussprüfers verwiesen. Die Arbeit entwickelt Leitlinien zur Umsetzung dieses pflichtmäßen Ermessens und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen für ein systematisches Vorgehen zur Umsetzung des Wesentlichkeitsgrundsatzes in der Prüfungspraxis. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit wird auch den Wesentlichkeitsbeurteilungen der DPR und BaFin in deren Fehlerveröffentlichungen gewidmet, da diese Enforcementinstitutionen grds. denselben Wesentlichkeitsmaßstab wie in der Abschlussprüfung anwenden.