The crowdfunding phenomenon has garnered a considerable amount of attention in recent years. Several online crowdfunding platforms have risen to prominence; they can be characterized as two-sided marketplaces. Recent research reveals initial insights into the dynamics and characteristics of crowdfunding networks arising from such marketplaces. This research, though, is restricted primarily to analyses of static network snapshots and at the dyadic level. In this study, we use a large longitudinal dataset to analyze the behavior of actors on both sides of the market who promote their own and fund others’ projects. We investigate the influence of endogenous and exogenous effects on the dynamics of crowdfunding networks. Our results provide evidence for mechanisms promoting a hierarchical network organization and the absence of homophily-related mechanisms regarding gender or geographic distance. Moreover, we establish that experienced and popular project creators fund fewer projects.
Organizations increasingly rely on group-based organizational structures to manage uncertain environments. However, at the group level there is still a limited understanding of how boundary-spanning activities should be managed to increase group performance. In this paper, we propose "out-group-tie centralization" as a concept that refers to the variation in the group members' network ties to other social actors who are not members of the group itself. When the out-group-tie centralization is low, no group member enjoys substantially more ties to other social actors outside the group than does any other group member. A panel analysis with 120 work groups from a medium-size German bank over a 12-month period reveals a reversed u-shaped relationship between out-group-tie centralization and group performance. However, the results indicate no association between the density of a work group communication network and that group's performance.
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.
We propose a methodology of an ex ante prediction of users' performance based on analyzing the pupillary diameter variability captured by ordinary eye-tracking systems. Based on a realistic large-scale experimental evaluation of our methodology we show promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to the user's mental effort and the expected user performance. Our non-invasive contact-free methodology can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments, without disturbing the participant/user.
Studies show that social capital facilitates access to internal and external knowledge and in turn increases business value. In that respect, studies show that companies sharing some similarities such as organizational values and practices may benefit more than companies differing in various aspects. In particular, group affiliations have been shown to influence performance in specific contexts but results are mixed at best. In addition, the question of how the influence of social capital on transferring useful external knowledge might be moderated by closer affiliations between companies is virtually not addressed. Employing a survey among manufacturing companies, this paper contributes to extant research by demonstrating a moderating effect of group affiliations on the relationship between social capital and useful external knowledge.
In 2007, OASIS finalized their Business Process
Execution Language 2.0 (BPEL) specification which defines
an XML-based language for building orchestrations of Web
Services. As the validation of BPEL processes against the
official BPEL XML schema leaves room for a plethora of static
errors, the specification contains 94 static analysis rules to cover
all static errors. According to the specification, any violations
of these rules are to be checked by a standard conformant
engine at deployment time. When a violation is not detected
in BPEL processes during deployment, such errors remain
unnoticed until runtime, making them expensive to find and fix.
In this work, we investigate whether mature BPEL engines that
claimed standard conformance implement these static rules.
To answer this question, we formalize the static rules and
derive test cases based on these formalizations to evaluate
the degree of support for static analysis of six open source
BPEL engines using the BPEL Engine Test System (betsy). In
addition, we propose a method to get more accurate static
analysis conformance results by taking the feature conformance
of engines into account to exclude false positives in contrast
to the classic approach. The results reveal that support for
static analysis in these engines varies greatly, ranging from
nonexistent to full support. Furthermore, our proposed method
outperforms the classic one in terms of accuracy.
The selection of the best fitting process engine for
a specific project requires the evaluation of engines according
to various requirements. We focus on the non-functional
requirement robustness, which is critical in production environments
but hard to determine. Thus, we propose an evaluation
framework to reveal important robustness criteria of process
engines. In this work, we focus on message robustness, i.e., the
ability to handle the receipt of invalid messages appropriately.
In a case study comprising five open source BPEL engines, we
determine message robustness by injecting faults into robustly
designed processes as a reply to a previously sent request from
an external virtual service and assert their behavior. The results
show that the degree of message robustness significantly differs,
hence, robustly designed processes do not necessarily lead to
robust runtime behavior, the selected engines still play a major
The Web Services Business Process Execution language (BPEL) is a standard
for modeling and executing automated processes and is tailor-made for service
orchestration. BPEL specifies a serialization format which every BPEL implementation
has to understand, thus allowing for the portability of processes among runtime engines.
Although the modeling and execution of BPEL processes is portable between engines
to a large degree, the lifecycle management of BPEL processes is not standardized and
varies a lot for different engines. This paper presents a first approach for a uniform
and cloud-based lifecycle management of BPEL processes and engines. We infer a
uniform interface for the lifecycle management from the capabilities of current engines
and provide a prototypic implementation of a tool that manages processes and engines
on a TOSCA-compliant infrastructure.