"In many countries regional disparities are fairly large and persistent. Often classification systems are needed to provide succinct information on these disparities. This paper presents a model-based classification system which is designed to assess labour market conditions which influence the outcomes of active labour market policy. The innovation in this paper is the development of a procedure that combines a theory-guided analysis of determinants of regional disparities with standard classification approaches. The procedure is designed to resolve two limitations inherent in many existing classification schemes: first, their purely descriptive nature and second, the lack of a theoretically meaningful organization of the variable selection process." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku)
"Ein zentrales Ziel der Arbeitsförderung nach dem Zweiten Sozialgesetzbuch (SGB II) ist die (Wieder-)Eingliederung erwerbsfähiger Hilfebedürftiger in den Arbeitsmarkt. Ob deren Integration in eine nicht geförderte Beschäftigung gelingt, hängt auch von den regionalen Rahmenbedingungen ab. Diese unterscheiden sich stark. Wer die Integrationsleistung der 422 Jobcenter in Deutschland vergleichbar machen will, muss diesen Unterschieden Rechnung tragen. Zu diesem Zweck hat das IAB im Sinne eines Benchmarkings zwölf regionale Vergleichstypen für die Arbeitsmarktsteuerung der Bundesagentur für Arbeit entwickelt." (Autorenreferat, IAB-Doku)
"Die Wirtschaftskrise zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre traf den Raum Schweinfurt besonders hart. Er galt als "Krisenregion Nr. 1 in Westdeutschland"; die Arbeitslosigkeit erreichte Rekordwerte. Dies hat sich deutlich zum Besseren gewendet. Obwohl die Wirtschaftsleistung in der jüngsten Krise 2008/2009 ebenfalls massiv einbrach, stieg die Arbeitslosigkeit kaum. Der Großraum Schweinfurt steht daher exemplarisch für Regionen, die den Strukturwandel von Regionalwirtschaft und Arbeitsmarkt erfolgreich bewältigt haben."
"A problem encountered in many contexts is the estimation of matrices or tables from aggregate, heterogeneous, incomplete and contradictory information. In this paper the Adeton method is presented which can be used for this estimation task under quite general conditions. The Adeton method was originally developed to estimate flow matrices of regional labour markets in the Multi-Accounting System (MAS). However, it is applicable for many purposes, e.g. to estimate contingency tables or input-output and other flow matrices. Adeton is based on a Bayesian inference model: Given a prior probability distribution on the set of possible matrices and information about the actual matrix consisting of a set of linear equality and inequality constraints, the complete matrix with highest posterior probability is calculated. The advantage of the Adeton approach is that it is possible to specify soft constraints which are obeyed only up to a certain degree. It is shown that Adeton is an estimation method of entropy optimization type and in this respect is a generalization of the well known Iterative Proportional Fitting Algorithm (used in log-linear models) or of the equivalent RAS method (used in input-output analysis)."
"The wage curve postulates that the wage level is a decreasing function of the regional unemployment rate. In testing this hypothesis, most studies have not taken into account that differences in the institutional framework may have an impact on the existence (or the slope) of a wage curve. Using a large-scale linked employer–employee dataset for Western Germany, this article provides a first direct test of the relevance of different bargaining regimes (and of works councils) for the existence of a wage curve. In pooled regressions for the period 1998 to 2006, as well as in worker-level or plant-level fixed-effects estimations, we obtain evidence for a wage curve for plants with a collective bargaining agreement at firm level. The point estimates for this group of plants are close to the −0.1 elasticity of wages with respect to unemployment postulated by Blanchflower and Oswald. In this regime, we also find that works councils dampen the adjustment of wages to the regional unemployment situation. In the other regimes of plants that either do not make use of collective contracts or apply sectoral agreements, we do not find a wage curve."
"Recent years have seen a tendency towards larger migration flows between many countries. Due to this development the population in the most developed countries in particular is growing increasingly diverse. People with very different cultural backgrounds are living and working together. The social, political and economic implications of this situation are far-reaching, complicated and not completely understood. This paper addresses an important aspect of these implications by looking at the effects of cultural diversity on the labour market. In principle, negative effects can arise from communication problems between people of different cultural backgrounds, from hidden discrimination and even from open clashes. On the other hand, positive effects are possible, since workers from different cultures and nations may possess complementary skills and problem-solving abilities. The intensive interaction of people from different backgrounds can generate ideas and solutions that would not have been developed in culturally homogeneous environments."
The diversity of nationalities of foreign workers in the German labour market has increased considerably over the period 1995–2006. This paper investigates the effects of this diversity for native employees at the local level. The higher is high-skilled foreign employment, the higher are local wages and employment levels for natives. These effects are reinforced the more diverse is the group of high-skilled foreigners. For low-skilled foreigners benefits from diversity are also found, but only conditional on the overall size of this group. These results suggest that cultural diversity benefits native workers by raising local productivity.
- International immigration affects the degree of cultural diversity present in a labour force. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the consequences of immigration with respect to the level of cultural diversity by estimating employment functions for individual establishments. Design/methodology/approach
– The theory behind the empirical analyses is based on a “turned around” new economic geography model. The data basis used is a linked employer – employee data set generated by a fusion of the IAB Establishment Panel with the Employment Statistics of Germany, which provides very detailed information about individual workers and establishments. In the empirical part instrumental variables techniques are employed to solve the endogeneity issues involved.
– In the empirical analyses it is shown that employment is lower when the degree of diversity is higher, regarding the revenue of an individual establishment as given. From this result it can be derived under the conditions of monopolistic competition (implying elastic product demand) that the establishment is able to occupy a relatively large part of the market. Finally, this impliesrelatively high labour demand. Practical implications
– The paper provides clear evidence that cultural diversity in single establishments enhance productivity. The question remains whether different employees interact each another or whether they are separated to different tasks within the establishment. In the latter case productivity gains are due to task-specific knowledge whereas in the former one the interaction of different cultures matters. This issue cannot be answered with the given data set.
– Negative effects emerging from employing various cultures (such as language barriers) can be compensated. Thus, hiring foreign born workers does not mean a decline in productivity and a loss in competitiveness.
Since the days of David Ricardo economists have discussed the effects of technological progress on employment. Due to a theorem which can be traced back at least to Neisser (1942), these effects can be related to the elasticity of product demand. In this paper we prove the theorem formally in a modern framework and generalize it to the case of many products. This theorem is relevant in many different regards. In particular it may contribute to a better understanding of regional and national (un-) employment.