Anhand von Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS) bestätigt sich der in Deutschland vielfach belegte starke Zusammenhang von Kompetenzen und sozialer Herkunft bereits deutlich bei Kindern im Vorschulalter. Für mathematische, sprachliche und kognitive Fähigkeiten sowie das Arbeitsge-dächtnis zeigt sich, dass die über eine Aufgabe zum Belohnungsaufschub gemessene Fähigkeit zur Selbstregulation unter Kontrolle sozialer Herkunftsmerkmale ebenfalls mit diesen Kompetenzen einhergeht und darüber hinaus den Herkunftseffekt sogar zum Teil kompensiert.
Previous research demonstrated that the exposure to media portrayals of the thin body ideal negatively affects body satisfaction and mood of healthy women and thus represents a sociocultural risk factor for the development of eating disorders. However, at present, it is not known whether negative effects of the thin ideal are pronounced in eating-disordered patients.
Female inpatients with a current diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (N = 36), bulimia nervosa (N = 32), or mood or anxiety disorder (N = 31), and women with no current psychiatric diagnosis were randomly assigned to exposure to magazine pictures depicting the thin female body ideal or landscape scenes in two experimental phases (leafing through a magazine followed by instructed imagination of a picture from the magazine). The groups were compared on measures of body satisfaction and mood that were collected before and after the two phases.
Leafing through a fashion magazine was not associated with negative effects on body satisfaction or mood in all groups. Imagining the thin ideal resulted in a decrease in body satisfaction and a decrease in positive mood. We found no diagnosis-specific effects indicating no stronger negative impact of the thin ideal on eating-disorder patients.
Given the lacking differences between eating-disordered patients and controls, these findings underline the importance of future research to enhance our understanding of what happens when patients are exposed to external or internal stimuli of media images of the thin ideal.
Subclinical depression is one of the most frequent mental comorbidities in patients with diabetes and is associated with a poorer long-term prognosis. Since there is a lack of specific intervention concepts for this patient group, a selfmanagement–oriented group program (DIAMOS [Diabetes Motivation Strengthening]) was newly developed and evaluated in a randomized trial.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
DIAMOS is composed of cognitive behavioral interventions aiming at the reduction of diabetes distress. The active control group (CG) received diabetes education. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes were diabetes distress, well-being, self-care behavior, diabetes acceptance, diabetes treatment satisfaction, HbA1c, and subclinical inflammation.
Two hundred fourteen participants (mean age 43.3 6 13.3 years, female sex 56.5%, type 2 diabetes 34.1%, mean diabetes duration 14.2 6 10.5 years, HbA1c 8.9 6 1.8%, BMI 28.7 6 71 kg/m2) were randomized. The 12-month follow-up revealed a significantly stronger reduction of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score) in the DIAMOS group compared with the CG (D3.9 [95% CI 0.6–7.3], P = 0.021). Of the secondary variables, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (D1.7 [95% CI 0.2–3.2], P = 0.023), Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (D8.2 [95% CI 3.1–13.3], P = 0.002), and Diabetes Distress Scale scores (D0.3 [95% CI 0.1–0.5], P = 0.012) displayed significant treatment effects. Moreover, the risk of incident major depression in the DIAMOS group was significantly reduced (odds ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.42–0.96], P = 0.028). Inflammatory variables were not substantially affected.
DIAMOS is more effective in lowering depressive symptoms and diabetes-related distress in diabetic patients with subclinical depression. DIAMOS also has a preventive effect with respect to the incidence of major depression.