Using vignettes, we analyze under which conditions workers perceive over-proportional wage
increases for occupational groups that are represented by craft unions as (rather) fair. Perceptions
depend on the burdens of the occupational group, the size of the wage increase, information policies,
and potential consequences for other groups.
Are non-governmental primary and secondary schools a solution to offer more school children in developing countries access to education or do these non-governmental education providers merely reinforce the inequalities in access to education? Are private education providers really offering education of higher quality or do they actually just evade public control? These questions are subject to international controversy, especially in the light of the profit-oriented engagement of so called low cost private schools in the sector. The aim of this publication is to provide a differentiated and objective overview of this topic in an often very ideological debate, as there is no comparable documentation of the issue available so far worldwide. Moreover, recommendations will be drawn from the analysis for a constructive approach towards non-governmental schools and a possible cooperation with them, e.g. about the question, when financial support with funds from official development cooperation budgets for so called private schools seems reasonable. The study at hand has been compiled on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) by the University of Bamberg with support on concepts and contents from experts from Bread for the World (Brot für die Welt), the German Association of Adult Education (DVV – Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband e.V.), GIZ, the German Union for Education and Science, the Global Campaign for Education, KfW Entwicklungsbank (development bank), Kindernothilfe and Oxfam.
Cloud computing promises several advantages over classic IT models and has undoubtedly been one of the most hyped topics in the industry over the last couple of years.
Besides the established delivery models Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS), especially Platform as a Service (PaaS) has attracted significant attention these days.
PaaS facilitates the hosting of scalable applications in the cloud by providing managed and highly automated application environments.
Although most offerings are conceptually comparable to each other, the interfaces for application deployment and management vary greatly between vendors.
Despite providing similar functionalities, technically different workflows and commands provoke vendor lock-in and hinder portability as well as interoperability.
In this study, we present the tool Nucleus, which realizes a unified interface for application deployment and management among cloud platforms.
With its help, we aim to increase the portability of PaaS applications and thus help to avoid critical vendor lock-in effects.
In 2007, OASIS finalized their Business Process Execution Language 2.0 (BPEL) specification which defines an XML-based language for orchestrations of Web Services. As the validation of BPEL processes against the official BPEL XML schema leaves room for a plethora of static errors, the specification contains 94 static analysis rules to cover all static errors. According to the specification, any violations of these rules are to be checked by a standard conformant engine at deployment time. When a violation is not detected in BPEL processes during deployment, such errors are only detectable at runtime, making them expensive to find and fix.
Due to the large amount of rules, we have created a tag system to categorize them, allowing easier reasoning about these rules.
Next, we formalized the static rules and derived test cases based on these formalizations with the aim to evaluate the degree of support for static analysis of BPEL engines.
Hence, this work is the foundation of the static analysis capabilities of BPEL engines.