Interface theories allow systems designers to reason about the composability and compatibility of concurrent system components. Such theories often extend both de Alfaro and Henzinger’s Interface Automata and Larsen’s Modal Transition Systems, which leads, however, to several issues that are undesirable in practice: an unintuitive treatment of specified unwanted behaviour, a binary compatibility concept that does not scale to multi-component assemblies, and compatibility guarantees that are insufficient for software product lines.
In this paper we show that communication mismatches are central to all these problems and, thus, the ability to represent such errors semantically is an important feature of an interface theory. Accordingly, we present the error-aware interface theory EMIA, where the above shortcomings are remedied by introducing explicit fatal error states. In addition, we prove via a Galois insertion that EMIA is a conservative generalisation of the established MIA (Modal Interface Automata) theory.
Domesticated animals need to
be treated as fellow citizens: Only if we conceive of domesticated animals as
full members of our political communities can we do justice to their moral
standing – or so Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka argue in their widely discussed
book Zoopolis. In this contribution, we pursue two objectives. Firstly, we
will reject Donaldson and Kymlicka’s appeal for animal citizenship. We will do
so by submitting that far from paying due heed to their moral status, regarding
animals as citizens misinterprets their moral qualities and thus risks
treating them unjustly. Secondly, we will suggest that Donaldson and
Kymlicka’s reinforced focus on membership should draw our attention to the
moral standing of a further ‘species’ living in our midst, namely robots. Developments
within artificial intelligence have advanced rapidly in recent
years. With robots gaining ever greater capacities and abilities, we need to ask
urgent questions about the moral ramifications of these technical advances.
Introduction: Recent meta-analysis showed that diabetes seems to be a
risk factor for incident depression. This prospective study examines the role
of elevated diabetes distress on the persistence or the recovery from elevated
depressive symptoms at a 6-month follow-up.Methods: Participants
completed the CES-D. A score of >=16 indicate elevated depressive symptoms.
The Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) assessed diabetes related
distress; a PAID score of >=30 indicate moderate diabetes related distress.
Logistic regression models were performed. Persistence and recovery from
elevated depressive symptoms were the dependent variables. The independent
variable was diabetes related distress. The models were adjusted for
potential demographic (age, gender) or medial confounders (BMI, diabetes
duration, A1C, diabetes type and late complications).Results: 351 diabetic
patients were included (age 50,8 ±11.4 yrs, 52% female, 58% type 2 diabetic
patients, diabetes duration 12.9 ±11.1 yrs, BMI 29,9 ±6,9 kg/m², A1c
7.9 ±1.5%). At baseline 125 patients (35.6%) reported elevated depressive
symptoms. At follow up 96 patients (27.3%) still had an elevated depression
score. If diabetes related distress was present at baseline the hazard ratio
of having persistent elevated depressive symptoms at follow up was 6.67
(95% CI 3.79 - 11.72). Adjusting for confounding variables did not change
the hazard ratio substantially (HR 6.02 95% CI 3.32 - 10.89). In addition the
chance for recovery from elevated depressive symptoms was signifi cantly
reduced if diabetes related distress was present (Odds ratio 0.37 95% CI
0.17 - 0.77). Controlling for possible confounders did not change the odds
ratio (0.36 95% CI 0.16 - 0.82).Conclusion: Diabetes related distress seems
to play a decisive role for an unfavorable course of depressive symptoms.
Diabetes related distress may be a mediating factor between diabetes and
depression. Addressing diabetes related distress may be able to ameliorate
depression in people with diabetes.
A public-private partnership (PPP) is an organizational arrangement in which knowledge and resources are pooled in order to realize outcomes. Although PPPs have become common practice in spatial planning and development, there is a continuous search for their ideal organizational form and management. This is fueled by the often poor performance in terms of e.g. time delays and budget overruns. Whilst comparative studies have been conducted into the outcomes of certain organizational forms and management strategies, fewer comparative studies evaluate their combined effects. The goal of this study is to explore what configurations of certain organizational forms and management may produce good outcomes. This is done by conducting a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of survey data of 50 managers involved in urban regeneration companies (URCs) in the Netherlands.
An understudied aspect for the successful completion of PPP infrastructure projects is the extent to which they are satisfactorily implemented. Studying PPP implementation is important though, because well-planned projects can fail if project implementation is inadequately managed. This article aims to find out which management and public–private cooperation approaches produce satisfaction for public procurers in the implementation phase of different kinds of infrastructure projects. To this purpose, twenty-seven Dutch road construction projects are systematically analyzed with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The results show four configurations that produce satisfaction. It is concluded that externally-oriented management, which is characterized by a stakeholder-oriented project implementation approach, and close public–private cooperation, where public and private partners work together closely and interactively, are important for achieving satisfaction. In less complex projects with narrower scopes, however, the partners may rely on less interactive forms of cooperation, more characterized by monitoring contract compliance.
Arguably, the current interest in the complexity sciences has its roots in the natural sciences, often in interplay with, and enhanced by, developments in mathematics and informatics. An oft-cited reason for this interest has been the increased ability of current computing systems to deal with complex mathematics and algorithms. As complexity gains more traction in the natural sciences, so it does in the social sciences (see e.g. Castellani, 2009). Naturally, complexity has also invaded the evaluation literature since the 1990s, where it is increasingly discussed and applied (cf. Walton, 2014). For instance, the journal Evaluation has recently published a steady number of complexity-related pieces. A search within the journal on the terms ‘complexity theory’, ‘complex system’ or ‘complexity science’ yielded forty-nine articles as part of an increasing trend. Inquiries with Scopus into complexity and evaluation yielded similar results. In this article, we take stock of recent progress and discuss what complexity holds for evaluation by discussing three recent books.