Le contact linguistique entre le basque et le gascon est caractérisé par un bilinguisme de longue date au Nord du Pays Basque, surtout dans le Nord de la Basse-Navarre, l’ancienne province de la Soule et dans la zone limitrophe à l’aire gasconne au Labourd. Les résultats de ce contact sont examinés dans une perspective dialectale.
The article identifies one of the two stops on Afanasij Nikitin's return journey through India, Suri. Based upon the newly found place, a new reconstruction of this part of his journey is proposed by the author.
Anthropologische Fragestellungen initiieren interdisziplinäre Diskurse. Hat der Homo Europaeus aus der Perspektive der Medien-, Literatur-, Religions- und Sozialwissenschaften ein anderes Gesicht als im Zugriff von geopolitischen Strategien? Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht zwei polnische Essays ("Rodzinna Europa" von Czesław Miłosz und "Mój Lwów" von Józef Wittlin). Anhand der anthropologischen Kriterien „Welt- und Menschenbild“ sowie „Lebensformen und Lebenswissen“ werden die heute gewohnten, zwischen Distanz und Nostalgie pendelnden Aussagen über Mittel- und Osteuropa überprüft. Die Untersuchung kann natürlich nur einen kleinen Ausschnitt des umfangreichen Themas erfassen, die Ergebnisse lassen insbesondere über die Kraft der menschlichen Imagination staunen.
This paper provides new insights into the association between economic standing and subjective well-being (SWB) among aging individuals in three industrialized countries: Germany, Israel, and Sweden. Specifically, we compare the effects of wealth, in line with the growing consensus that wealth is an important determinant of economic standing alongside income, on SWB across three welfare-state regimes: conservative (Germany), liberal (Israel), and social-democratic (Sweden). Drawing on needs theory, we hypothesize that individuals of poor wealth would report lower levels of SWB in all countries. We expect, however, the association between poor wealth and SWB to be stronger in the liberal system (Israel) and weaker in the conservative system (Germany) with the weakest effect found in the social-democratic system (Sweden) due to differences in the extent of social benefits each welfare-state regime provides its residents. To test our hypotheses, we utilize data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe(SHARE1). Results indicate that income and wealth explain a greater part of the variance in SWB when taken together. We find a ‘poor penalty’ on SWB in Germany and Israel while in Sweden wealth has no impact on SWB. Finally, when controlling for subjective economic hardship (needs), the negative effect of poor wealth on SWB disappears in Germany, but maintains significance in Israel, suggesting that needs theory alone cannot explain the poor penalty in Israel. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the welfare-state has an impact on the wealth–SWB relation and that the mechanisms that underlie this relation operate differently in Germany and Israel.
Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Erklärung des altrussischen Lautwandels, insbesondere im Vokalsystem, und versucht eine Erklärung als "Phänomen der dritten Art" (nach Rudi Keller) für den Jat'-Wandel zu skizzieren. Erstmals werden dabei die Änderungen in der morphologischen Paradigmatik mit in den Blickpunkt genommen.
Although interviewer observations have potential as auxiliary sources of information on key survey variables, questions about their quality temper enthusiasm for their use in survey estimation and responsive survey design. This study considers the utility of two interviewer observations (household income and household receipt of unemployment benefits) collected in a panel survey: the German Labor Market and Social Security (PASS) study. We find that the ability of the interviewer observations to accurately identify these household features is not as high as that of prior-wave survey reports on these features, but the observations do tend to capture accurate information for households with changing socioeconomic status over time (where prior-wave reports may be inconsistent with current-wave reports). The observations add modest predictive power to models for key survey variables that also include survey reports on related variables in prior waves, but this predictive power may be limited by relatively high error rates and variance in observation quality among interviewers. Finally, estimates based on panel households only improve slightly when including the observations in nonresponse adjustments, which is likely due to the inability of the observations to predict response propensity (given a relatively low attrition rate for the panel households). Implications for practice and directions for future research in this area are discussed in conclusion.
One of the many questions surrounding Leonardo’s Mona Lisa concerns the landscape visible in the portrait’s background: Does it depict an imagination of Leonardo’s mind, a real world landscape or the motif of a plane canvas that hung in Leonardo’s studio, behind the sitter? By analyzing divergences between the Mona Lisa and her Prado double that was painted in parallel but from another perspective we found mathematical evidence for the motif-canvas hypothesis: The landscape in the Prado version is 10% increased but otherwise nearly identical with the Louvre one, which indicates both painters used the same plane motif-canvas as reference.