In the last decade, several efforts have been made to improve teaching and intervening practice in preschool classrooms by means of professional development programs (Mar-tinez-Beck & Zaslow, 2006; OECD, 2012). In-service professional development for pre-school teachers varies widely with respect to amount, duration, delivery format (traditional workshop and course vs. modern approaches such as coaching, mentoring, blended learning) and content (Oberhuemer, 2012; 2013). In general, it is assumed that in-service training enhances teachers’ knowledge, skills, and classroom practice. Improved teaching practice enhances student achievement. The connection seems intuitive, but empirical demonstration is difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to conduct a research synthesis on the results of in-service professional development effects and to draw conclusions about the findings on potential effect modifiers into an integrated frame-work.
Systematic review procedures and meta-analytic techniques were used to estimate the effectiveness of in-service programs. The review consists of experimental studies (RCT, CRT, quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies) that have evaluated the impact of professional development for teachers working in center-based care on quality ratings and child development. Electronic searches (ERIC, PsycINFO, ProQuest, FIS, and WISO) and hand searches in renowned journals from 1970 to 2011 produced 1,162 hits. Two inde-pendent coders extracted statistical information from the full texts and screened the litera-ture on the quality of the studies, in-service characteristics, and training transfer factors. A randomized multi-level procedure was used to aggregate the summary impact, where effect sizes were nested under treatment.
Overall, 36 studies provided sufficient data to conduct a meta-analysis of in-service train-ing effects on quality ratings. The aggregation of findings revealed a medium summary effect g’ = 0.64 (SE = 0.071). Alongside methodological variables, the size of the effect was statistically moderated by training intensity and format. In-service programs with 45 to 60 hours of training and programs that used coaching as their sole format were the most effective.
The impact of professional development programs on the language and literacy abilities of young children have been investigated in 48 studies. The summary effect was small
g’ = 0.38 (SE = 0.045). Differential impacts and variations in the size of the effects were found for different outcome domains. Effect sizes were moderated by methodological as-pects, training design and intensity. Programs with 15 to 30 hours of training were the most effective in fostering language and literacy skills. Approaches that used mixed delivery types, in particular the combination of workshop and course had a larger impact.
For the meta-analysis of in-service training effects on social skills and reduced problem behavior, 13 studies provided sufficient data. A small summary effect was found: g’ = 0.45 (SE = 0.074). However, differential effects emerged for different outcome domains. In particular, larger effects were found for the promotion of social skills than for the reduction of problem behavior. Alongside methodological variables, training programs with a duration of 9 months or short-term programs with less than 30 hours of training were significantly more effective.
To investigate the link between in-service professional development, quality improvements and child development, 9 studies were found that provide data on both quality ratings and child development. In-service training effects on student achievement could be significantly predicted by quality improvements that occurred during training. More than
53 % of the variance in effects on child development was explained by the quality ratings which emerged as a result of in-service professional training.
In addition to the meta-analyses, narrative reviews identified some features of highly ef-fective in-service programs with a calculated effect of g > 0.80. Narrative analysis indicat-ed that a narrow content focus and educational principles matter. In particular, effective programs provided opportunities for active learning, guidance and feedback as well as performance-based assignments during training and between training sessions. Further, the trainers of highly effective programs were either the authors of the program or had a specific pretraining/license for the program.
Several effect modifiers were tested. In the majority of cases, the effects were influenced by methodological issues (e.g., pretest differences, reliability of scales or informants) and training intensity in hours. However, the results for training delivery variables were incon-sistent. Clear conclusions on other characteristics cannot be made from the meta-regression, because the findings were either inconsistent or missing information in primary studies hindered the investigation.
In summary, there are some beneficial programs and the synthesis of research findings suggests that most of the in-service training has positive effects on the quality of early education and child development. The results demonstrate that quality improvements are a key mechanism to enhance student achievement. Some conclusions for achieving highly professional development with regards to duration and intensity, educational principles and trainers can be drawn. Recommendations for further research include high quality research designs (e.g., equivalence of groups, reliable scales, etc.) and data collection on confounding and contextual variables. Nevertheless, some questions remain in analyzing in-service training effects. In particular, more research and primary studies are needed to investigate the heterogeneity of the results and the moderating role of implementation processes and program fidelity.
This dissertation presents research projects which investigated dynamics in the perception and appreciation of ambiguous and indeterminate art. It examines how semantical instability in art can induce pleasure in the perceiver although defying an easy consumption. The idea pursued within this thesis is that insights gained during an elaboration of such objects lead to an increase in appreciation (Aesthetic Aha effect, Muth & Carbon, 2013)—the creation of meaning itself being rewarding. The comprised research projects examine such dynamics in perception and appreciation of visual artworks which are semantically instable. A crucial quality of these objects might be that they confront the perceiver with semantical instability as well as opportunity for insight: for instance, we like Cubist artworks more the better we are able to discern identifiable objects in them—still they never dissolve into an easy recognizable interpretation (Muth, Pepperell, & Carbon, 2013a). Also the solvability of ambiguity in another set of visual artworks did not have positive effects on liking, interest, and affect. Instead, the strength of insights gained during their elaboration predicted appreciation positively (Muth, Hesslinger, & Carbon, 2015). In line with the Aesthetic Aha effect (Muth & Carbon, 2013) also the sudden emergence of Gestalt within indeterminate artistic movies elicited an increase in liking. Interest—in contrast –already increased prior to these moments of insight (Muth, Raab, & Carbon, 2015). The presented findings highlight that art perception does not equal a kind of problem solving process in which semantical instability needs to be resolved for the artwork to appeal. Instead appreciation might benefit from rewarding insights into the instable.
The main objective of this thesis is to bridge the gap between modeling method experts on the one side and tool developers on the other. More precisely, the focus is on the specification of requirements for multi-view modeling tools. In this regard, the thesis introduces a methodological approach that supports the specification of conceptual designs for multi-view modeling tools in a stepwise manner: the MuVieMoT approach. MuVieMoT utilizes generic multi-view modeling concepts and the model-driven engineering paradigm to establish an overarching specification of multi-view modeling tools with an emphasis on consistency requirements. The approach builds on and extends the theoretical foundation of metamodeling and multi-view modeling: generic multi-view modeling concepts, integrated multi-view modeling approaches, and possibilities for formalized modeling method specifications. Applicability and utility of MuVieMoT are evaluated using an illustrative scenario, therefore specifying a conceptual design for a multi-view modeling tool for the Semantic Object Model enterprise modeling method. The thesis moreover introduces the MuVieMoT modeling environment, enabling the efficient application of the approach as well as the model-driven development of initial multi-view modeling tools based on the conceptual models created with MuVieMoT. Consequently, the approach fosters an intersubjective and unambiguous understanding of the tool requirements between method experts and tool developers.
An airport is the gateway which facilitates access to air transport. As a reaction to very diverse attacks on the air transport system during the last decades a broad range of security measures has been introduced to mitigate possible threats. The challenge to provide a trouble free experience for the passenger and, at the same time, to oper-ate more efficiently calls for a proactive approach. This requires the definition of future requirements that allow an adaptation of the security system. When dealing with uncertainty that future-oriented decisions inevitably display, it is important to gain as much knowledge as possible about a system’s general structure. The approach described in this paper systematically documents elements and relationships of the airport security system. It consists of threat scenario elements as well as security measures. The development of a software tool, the so-called Scenario Builder, is described and its application for the identification of possible future threats ex-plained. The presented approach offers intuitive access to the underlying structure of the airport security system. It provides decision makers with a possibility to interact with the system and anticipate effects of threat development, thereby enabling robust, future-oriented decisions.
This PhD thesis investigates the relationship between corporate IT capability and institutional investors from two different perspectives. From the first perspective, institutional investors influence companies in their strategies and objectives. From the second, IT capability has considerable firm-internal implications that increase future prospects and firm value, which in turn attracts certain investors. The empirical results illustrate significant differences in ownership structure for firms characterized by superior IT capability. Looking deeper into this phenomenon indicates that the development of a firm’s IT capability is related to subsequent changes in the ownership structure towards more long-term oriented institutional shareholders and vice versa. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of the firm-external influences of institutional investors as well as the capital market implications of firms’ IT capability.
The eponymous heroes of "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde", "The Picture of Dorian Gray" and "Dracula" are known to most through the medium of film. These novels were adapted early on in the history of the medium and have been revisited by film makers countless times. This book asks why they had such a lasting resonance in film. It claims that the monsters featured in these novels, which were written at the advent of cinematography, differ from previous Gothic leads: Jekyll/Hyde, Dorian Gray and Dracula were born from a sense of unease with the photographic image at a time when it began to move. They embody fears triggered by new ways of representing – and thus thinking about – the human body. Their exhibitions of deviant corporeality and its effect on others anticipate the representation of the human body in film as well as an audience’s reception of a film.
Through its numerous case studies, this monograph is able to show that film history can be told as a history of the representation of the human body. It features discussions of films as diverse as "Der Januskopf", "Nosferatu", "Vampyr", "Le Testament du Docteur Cordelier", "Altered States", "Dorian Gray im Spiegel der Boulevardpresse" and "Bram Stoker’s Dracula".
Abstract – Study 01
Research about parent effects on family behavior focuses on intergenerational transmission: whether children show the same family behavior as their parents. This potentially overemphasizes similarity and obscures heterogeneity in parent effects on family behavior. In this study we make two contributions. First, instead of focusing on isolated focal events, we conceptualize parents’ and their children’s family formation holistically as the process of union formation and childbearing between age 15 and age 40. We then discuss mechanisms likely to shape these intergenerational patterns. Second, beyond estimating average transmission effects, we innovatively apply multichannel sequence analysis to dyadic sequence data on middle class American families from the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG, N=461 parent-child dyads). The results show three salient intergenerational family formation patterns among this population: a strong transmission, a moderated transmission, and an intergenerational contrast pattern. We examine what determines parents’ and children’s likelihood to sort into a specific intergenerational pattern. For middle class American families, educational upward mobility is a strong predictor of moderated intergenerational transmission, whereas parent-child conflict increases the likelihood of intergenerational contrast in family formation. We conclude that intergenerational patterns of family formation are generated at the intersection of macro structural change and family internal psychological dynamics
Abstract – Study 02
Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way, whether there is sibling similarity in family formation trajectories and if siblings’ shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 until 2007 to construct longitudinal family formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N=14,257 dyads). Findings show that siblings’ family formation is moderately but significantly more similar than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents’ own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification, such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family formation patterns. Particularly patterns that go along with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality.
Abstract – Study 03
This study investigated the association between childhood living arrangements and early family formation in Germany. Drawing on persisting socio-environmental differences between East and West Germany the author addressed the question whether the association of childhood family structure and the early transition to adulthood varies in different societal contexts. In line with research from other countries, the analysis based on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam/DemoDiff; N = 3643) showed that children from non-traditional family structures experience important demographic transitions faster than children who have been raised by both biological parents. In addition to this rather ubiquitous association, the study revealed considerable context-specific differences, which point to the long-term consequences of the post-war separation of East and West Germany. First, although increasing in relevance, family structure was less predictive for early family formation in East Germany. Second, the results indicated that the link between childhood family structure and the reproduction of social inequality, which has been found in many studies from the US, could only be replicated for West Germany. In East Germany, educational attainment did not mediate the effect of childhood living arrangements on early family formation, nor was it associated with an increased probability of ever having lived in an alternative family structure.
Much attention is being paid to the planning of public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects. The subsequent implementation phase – when the contract has been signed and the project ‘starts rolling’ – has received less attention. However, sound agreements and good intentions in project planning can easily fail in project implementation. Implementing PPP infrastructure projects is complex, but what does this complexity entail? How are projects managed, and how do public and private partners cooperate in implementation? What are effective management strategies to achieve satisfactory outcomes? This is the fi rst set of questions addressed in this thesis. Importantly, the complexity of PPP infrastructure development imposes requirements on the evaluation methods that can be applied for studying these questions. Evaluation methods that ignore complexity do not create a realistic understanding of PPP implementation processes, with the consequence that evaluations tell us little about what works and what does not, in which contexts, and why. This hampers learning from evaluations. What are the requirements for a complexity-informed evaluation method? And how does qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) meet these requirements? This is the second set of questions addressed in this thesis.
The main research objective of my thesis is to contribute to a broader understanding of social inequality by going beyond inequalities solely derived from the labor market and find theoretical arguments as well as empirical evidence for the establishment of wealth as a distinct dimension of social stratification and, more importantly, of social inequality. With social stratification, I am referring to a society’s ranking of categories of individuals into a hierarchy of social positions. Social stratification becomes social inequality if access to these positions is unequal and if these positions are systematically related to advantageous or disadvantageous conditions of acting and living. In the course of my thesis, I will show that both these conditions apply to wealth: first, access is unequal and second, being of higher (lower) wealth is related to advantageous (disadvantageous) conditions of living. My thesis consists of five empirical studies that are knotted together by the common conception of wealth as a distinct dimension of social inequality. In order to find empirical support for this argument, in each study, I will approach the topic of wealth, or wealth inequality, from different perspectives. All studies represent theory-driven empirical analysis and are designed as international comparative studies.