Serbia’s decade of the 1990s was characterised by a long-lasting economic and political crisis. Throughout this period there was a constant decline in agricultural production, throughout Serbia. This downturn was more pronounced in the rural areas around Belgrade [Beograd]. Conventional urbanisation processes played only a supporting role in that development. The key force of the agricultural decline has to be seen in the economic crisis, in conjunction with the agricultural specialisation of this region. Results of this study on crop production (comparing 1991 with 2002 data) show that in the studied area subsistence farming gained significant importance; whereas simultaneously market-oriented production declined significantly. Furthermore, small-scale analyses of this study reveal results of structural changes, apart from the general outcome of rising subsistence. Concentration or specialisation on certain crops in few locations allowed still a high level of market-oriented production, even under these long-lasting crisis conditions.
This paper analyses the Serbian socio-economic spatial differentiation via a purely quantitative approach. In Serbia, huge development disparities between north and south, urban and rural as well as central and peripheral areas are obvious. Getting to the bottom of these spatial differences is one of the fundamental scientific and planning challenges of the region. This question of unevenly distributed living conditions is examined on the basis of factor analyses of secondary statistical data of the Serbian municipalities. The intention thereby was to identify the distribution of regional or spatial inequality by correlating an amount of 25 reliable variables. Combining the spheres of population structure, economy, employment, infrastructure, pre-school education and medical care an overall Index of Socio-economic Pressure is proposed to detect patterns of regional development on the Serbian territory.
Integrale DBFM-contracten in de transportinfrastructuur zijn nieuw en het duurt nog jaren voordat de eerste contracten aflopen. Om eerder al een indruk te krijgen van de prestatie van DBFM is systematische evaluatie nodig. Maar hoe evalueer je projectresultaten die in een wirwar van complexiteit tot stand komen? Net zoals smaakvolle gerechten tot stand komen door de juiste combinatie van ingrediënten is het zaak om de juiste elementen binnen DBFM te selecteren en te evalueren.
In this paper, we argue that beyond understanding nations as imagined communities, the metaphor of an ‘imagined family’ or ‘filial community’ is a more useful concept towards understanding links between gender and nationhood as family relations in four ways: (1) providing a clear, hierarchical structure; (2) prescribing social roles and responsibilities; (3) being linked to positive affective connotations; and (4) reifying social phenomena as biologically determined. In order to empirically substantiate our claim, we will explore the prevalence and use of family metaphors in a key symbol of nationhood discourses. Through a qualitative analysis of national anthems as ‘mnemonics of national identity’, we demonstrate the widespread presence of family metaphors, discussing how they reproduce ideas of family and gender. Finally, we discuss how the ‘imagined family’ as present in anthems and other forms of national representation could inform future studies of nationalism and national politics.
The present research integrates and extends existing approaches to measuring self-enhancement in interpersonal relationships.
We composed a dyadic self-enhancement index by contrasting self-perceptions with the academic achievements of both dyad members and disentangled the effects of the perceivers, the targets, and the relationships by using social relations analyses. At two different levels, we examined the interpersonal consequences of self-enhancement in 330 eighth-grade students. Results revealed that, at a habitual level, the more students tended to feel unrealistically superior to other students, the more they tended to dislike others, yet this did not affect how much others disliked them. However, at a relationship level, we found different effects in specific relationships between individuals: The more a student felt unrealistically superior to a specific other student, the less he or she liked the other student, and the less he or she was liked by that student.