Background: Most previous studies concerning the validity of the EQ-5D-3L items refer to applications of only a single language version of the EQ-5D-3L in only one country. Therefore, there is little information concerning the extent to which the results can be generalised across different language versions and/or different countries. Here the validity of the EQ-5D-3L items is investigated for six different language versions in six different countries.
Methods: Data came from 1341 type 2 diabetes patients (England: 289; Finland: 177; Germany: 255; Greece: 165; the Netherlands: 354; Spain: 101). The relationships of the five EQ-5D-3L items with seven different test variables (age, gender, education, previous stroke, problems with heart, problems with lower extremities, problems with eyes), were analysed for each combination of item and test variable. For each combination two logistic regression models with the dichotomised EQ-5D-3L item as dependent variable were computed. The first model contained the test variable and dummy coded countries as independent variables, the second model additionally the terms for the interaction between country and test variable. Statistically significant better fit of the second model was taken as evidence for country specific differences regarding the relationship. When such differences could be attributed mainly to one country the analyses were repeated without the data from this country. Validity was investigated with the remaining data using results of the first models.
Results: Due to lack of variation in the Spanish data only 31 of the originally intended 35 interaction tests could be performed. Only three of these yielded a significant result. In all three cases the Spanish data deviated most.
Without the Spanish data only 1 of the 35 interaction tests yielded a significant result. With 3 exceptions, the tendency of reporting problems increased with age, female gender, lower education, previous stroke, heart problems, problems with lower extremities and problems with eyes for all EQ-5D-3L items.
Conclusion: The results concerning the European Spanish
version are ambiguous. However, the items of the English, Finnish, German, Greek and Dutch versions of the EQ-5D-3L relate in substantially the same way to the test variables. Mostly, these relationships indicate the items’ validity.
This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three groups of teachers in a control group design: (1) teach- ers participating in the in-service training, subdivided into (1a) teachers trained as multipliers and (1b) teachers trained by the multipliers, and
(2) teachers who did not participate in the training. The study featured a quantitative control group design (n = 292) and is intended to contribute to the discussion on the sustainable effects of in-service teacher training in low-income countries. The data collection was conducted in 13 secondary schools in Cameroon. The results suggest that the programme had effects on the teachers’ attitudes and classroom practices.
Dieser Artikel kommt dem Mandat der ZEP nach, zeitgemäß die internationalen bildungspolitischen und wissenschaftlichen Diskussionen im Bereich Bildung und Entwicklung zu beobachten und anzureichern. Angeboten wird ein kritischer Rückblick nach vorne mit dem Ziel, zentrale Entwicklungen der Vision von Education for All in ihrer historisch-systematischen Verortung und konkreten Umsetzung zu skizzieren und perspektivische Überlegungen bis 2030 anzudeuten.
This study demonstrates the existence in Seville of lusterware production centers that operated under the authority of the Abbadid princes over several decades
during the second half of the eleventh century. Deliberately
situated within the Taifa period, this material clearly bears the direct influences of the various luxury ceramics produced in both the Western and Eastern regions of the Islamic realm, a phenomenon not unheard
of in the history of islamic ceramics. The fragments included in this grouping possess decorativ and technical features that have allowed for a distinct characterization
of this type of lustetware. Research conducted thus far
has found these types represented mainly in the southern
regions of the Iberian Peninsula.