The complexity of many cases, such as public projects and programs, requires evaluation methods that acknowledge this complexity in order to facilitate learning. On the one hand, the complexity of the cases derives from their uniqueness and nested nature. On the other hand, there is a need to compare cases in such a way that lessons can be transferred to other (future) cases in a coherent and non-anecdotal way. One method that is making headway as a complexity-sensitive, comparative method is Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). This contribution aims to explain to what extent QCA is complexity-informed, to show how it can be deployed as such, and to identify its strengths and weaknesses as an evaluation method. We will discuss the properties of complexity, provide an overview of evaluation literature about QCA, and present a simplified step-wise guide for utilizing QCA in evaluation studies.
Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated.
This paper presents a supervised classification model, where the indicators of correlation
between dependent and independent variables within each class are utilized
for a transformation of the large-scale input data to a lower dimension without loss
of recognition relevant information. In the case study, we use the consumption data
recorded by smart electricity meters of 4200 Irish dwellings along with half-hourly
outdoor temperature to derive 12 household properties (such as type of heating, floor
area, age of house, number of inhabitants, etc.). Survey data containing characteristics
of 3500 households enables algorithm training. The results show that the presented
model outperforms ordinary classifiers with regard to the accuracy and temporal characteristics.
The model allows incorporating any kind of data affecting energy consumption
time series, or in a more general case, the data affecting class-dependent variable,
while minimizing the risk of the curse of dimensionality. The gained information on
household characteristics renders targeted energy-efficiency measures of utility companies
and public bodies possible.
Over two decades have passed since the federal policy on environmental justice (EO 12898) was issued. However, empirical evidence indicates that injustice persists and that US states vary in their adoption of the terms of the environmental justice (EJ) policy. Moreover, studies of the explanations for the variation in states’ adoption of EJ policy are rare and have yielded puzzling ﬁndings - e.g., environmental interest groups are not associated with states’ EJ policy adoption, or the severity of problems is associated inversely with their adoption. We examined the progress and variation in states’ EJ policy adoption as of 2005 using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Our analysis showed ﬁrst that a strong environmental interest group presence, combined with high racial diversity and low problem severity, is sufﬁcient for a high level of EJ policy adoption, especially in Western states. Second, when environmental interest group presence is weak, if it is combined, again, with high racial diversity and the presence of a more liberal state government, a high level of EJ policy adoption also occurs. This is observed in the East coast, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the USA. Environmental politics and policy research can beneﬁt from a conﬁgurational approach, especially when there is no guiding theory on the conjunctional effects of key factors.
Die Diabetestherapie soll dazu beitragen, dass Menschen mit Diabetes mellitus trotz dieser chronischen Erkrankung ein möglichst normales und erfülltes Leben führen können. Dementsprechend sind für die Bewertung von Antidiabetika nicht nur Studienendpunkte zur Morbidität, Mortalität und zu Nebenwirkungen, sondern auch "Patient reported outcomes" (PROs), zu denen insbesondere Therapiezufriedenheit und Lebensqualität gehören, relevant. Die Beurteilung der Lebensqualität wird auch vom Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG) zur Kosten-Nutzen-Bewertung empfohlen (1) und wird in der Verordnung über die Nutzenbewertung von Arzneimitteln (AM-NutzenV) bei der genaueren Beschreibung des patientenrelevanten therapeutischen Effekts mit aufgeführt (2).